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100 terms

AG Final

American Gov't Final Flashcards
The Pendleton Act established the principle of ________ in federal hiring.
pgs. 224-227 (federal employment - basis of open, competitive exams and created Civil
The ratification of the ________ Amendment in 1913 gave Congress the authority to
implement a federal income tax, and thus allowed government to grow even more.
pgs. 224-227 (sixteenth)
Most federal employees are paid according to what is called the
pgs. 227-235 (General Schedule - Employees advance within 15 GIS grades; moving into higher GIS levels and salaries as their careers progress) - seniority
There are ____ federal agency regions in the United States.
pgs. 227-235 (10 locations - Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, Kansas Ciity, Denver, San Francisco, Seattle)
All Cabinet departments are headed by a secretary except for the Department of
pgs. 227-235 ( Department of Justice - It is headed by the attorney general)
The Environmental Protection Agency is a/an
pgs. 227-235 (Independent Executive Agency - administer federal programs aimed @ controlling pollution and protecting the nation's environment)
Hatch Act.
pgs. 227-235 (Hatch Act: (The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activists roles in partisan campaigns. The act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party , or campaigning for a particular candidate)
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab is better known as
pgs. 222-224 (terrorist - young 23 yr. old Nigerian; a tempted but failed to ignite explosives concealed in his underwear as Northwest Airlines Flight 252, prepared to land in Detroit, Michigan) - "Underwear Bomber"
Besides being an attempted attack on U.S. soil, the failed underwear bombing upset
Americans because pgs. 222-224
(1. Americans wanted to know how such an action could have taken place; and how to prevent similar attacks in the future.
2. The US Embassy was warned by the Underwear Bomber's Father, but was not placed on the no-fly list.
3. And Umar could pass through the airport security and board the Northwest plane.)
4. Who was to blame
"To the victors belong the spoils" is a term MOST frequently attributed to President
pgs. 224-227 (President Andrew Jackson - Spoils System describes the firing of public office holders of the defeated politicial party and their replacement with loyalists of a new administration.)
The firing of public-office holders representing a defeated political party, and replacing them
with loyalists of the victorious political party, is called the
pgs. 224-227 (Spoils System describes the firing of public office holders of the defeated political party and their replacement with loyalists of a new administration.)
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 was designed to reduce patronage and was also known as
(Pendleton Act - established a merit system of federal employment on a basis of open, competitive exams and created a bipartisan 3-menber civil service commission) -question # 1 also)
Interstate Commerce Commission.
pgs. 224-227 (Interstate Commerce Commission - created in 1887; tried to regulate the widespread price fixing, other unfair business practices that occurred after the Civil
War - also became the 1st independent regulatory commission)
Over time, the number of federal employees in the executive branch has
pgs. 224-227 (increased)
President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society program and War on Poverty
pgs. 224-227 (President Lyndon Baines Johnson's Great Society Program and War on Provety - Note: Great Society Program included the EEOC and Civil Rights Act of 1964; also, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and Transportation; Social Welfare Program)
Definition - broad attempt to combat poverty and discrimination; federal funds were channeled to states, local governments and citizen action groups in an effort to alleviate social ills.
One way government differs from business is that pgs. 227-235
(1. Governments exist for the public good, not to make money. Businesses are driven by a profit motive; government leaders are driven by re-election.
2. Governments raise money (revenue) from taxpayers. Businesses earn money from customers.
3. Hard to determine to whom governments (bureaucracies are responsible)
There are currently more than ________ subunits of Cabinet-level departments and
independent agencies.
pgs. 227-235 (2,000)
Of the more than 2.7 million federal employees, nearly ____ percent work for the U.S.
Postal Service.
pgs. 227-235 (one-quarter)
The president directly appoints nearly ________ people.
pgs 227-235 (3,500)
pgs. 227-235 ( Occupation, Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) -promotes job safety; handles occupational safety; can inspect health places within its jurisdiction)
Supreme Court justices and federal judges serve for
pgs. 246-251 (for a lifetime or until they retire)
Marbury v. Madison
pgs. 246-251 - 1803, case in which the Supreme Court first asserted the power of judicial review by finding that the congressional statute extending the court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional.)
trial courts.
pgs. 252-253 (Courts of original jurisdiction where cases begin)
The main role of the jury is to
acts as the ultimate finder of fact and plays an important role in determining the culpability of the individual on trial)
pgs. 252-253
There are ________ federal district courts.
pgs. 254-255 (94)
The number of judges of the various U.S. Court of Appeals
pgs. 254-255 (ranges from 6 to 30)
Since 1869, the Supreme Court has consisted of ________ associate justices.
pgs. 254-255 (8)
The justices of the Supreme Court are selected by _________________ and confirmed by the______________________
pgs. 256-261 (nominated by the president and confirmed by the U.S. Senate
As of 2010, the Supreme Court has had ________ African American members.
pgs. 256-261 (2)
The proceedings of the U.S. Supreme Court are
(Confidential - oral arguments, -not televised - deliberations concerning the outcome of cases are conducted under secrecy)
The Supreme Court will hear a case if ________ justices vote to do so
pgs. 261-268
(4 - (Rule of Four) -at least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
The judiciary was called the "least dangerous branch" by
pgs. 244-246 (Alexander Hamilton)
Among the powers of the judiciary specified in Article III are all of the following EXCEPT
A) all cases involving maritime law.
B) controversies between two states.
C) controversies between citizens of two states.
*D) controversies between Congress and the president. (D is the correct answer)
E) all cases affecting ambassadors or other public ministers. pgs. 246-
Why did the Framers include life tenure for federal judges?
pgs. 246-251 (They did not want the justices or any federal judge subject to the whims of politics, the public, or politicians.)
According to Article III, the salaries of federal judges pgs.
246-251 (Salaries of the Federal Judges will not be reduced during their service on the bench)
The Judiciary Act of 1789
pgs. 246-251 (Legislative act that established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system)
Federal circuit courts originally were created by Congress to
pgs. 246-251 (Function as a trial court for important cases)
In 1789, there were ________ justices sitting on the Supreme Court.
pgs. 246-251 (6)
In ________, Congress set the size of the Supreme Court at nine.
pgs. 246-251 (1869)
The first chief justice of the Supreme Court was
pgs. 246-251 (John Jay)
George Gallup
pgs. 276-278 (pollster who correctly predicted the results of the 1936 election; so confident about his predictions that he a gave money-back guarantee; he underpredicted Roosevelt's victory, but got the winner correct when Literary Digest miscalculated)
straw polls.
pgs. 278-280 (unscientific survey used to gauge public opinion on a variety of issues and policies)
major weaknesses of public opinion polls
pgs. 280-285
(1. limited respondent options such as asking yes or no questions and may not measure the temperature of the public)
2. lack of information - Not enough informatin to gauge attitudes of the public
3. difficulty measuring intensity - a person might answer a question one way, but there feeings on the issue are more intense)
Polls show that women and men
1. that women hold more negative views about war and military intervention than men
2. Women have more liberal attitudes on issues affecting the family or children
NOTE: see chart p.286 -bottom of page for details/clarification
Many American ideals, including hard work and personal responsibility, are rooted in our
pgs. 286-290 - (Protestant heritage)
Why is the welfare state in the United States less developed than many other industrialized
pgs. 286-290 (p.290 under political knowledge. Read that and see if it makes sense to you
Political knowledge and political participation have a reciprocal effect on one another - an increase in one will increase the other. Knowledge about the political system is essential to successful political involvement, which, in turn, teaches citizens about politicsand increasestheir interest in public affairs....most American's level of knowledge (about politics) is quite low, thus affecting the activities and outcomes of politics
A child's peer group is most politically influential in pgs.
286-290 (socialization process)
yellow journalism.
pgs. 290-298 (a form of newspaper publishing in Vogue in the late 19th century that featured pictures, color, comics and sensationalized news coverage)
The major news source for Republicans is
pgs. 290-298 Fox News
The equal time rule
pgs. 290-298 The rule that requires broadcast stations to sell time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any)
The first organized political party in the United States was the ____ Party.
pgs. 310-316
Federalist Party - See Chart p311
The Republican Party nominated its first presidential candidate, ____, in 1856
pgs. 310-316
(John C. Fremont)
The pinnacle of the party system in the United States is
pgs. 316-319 (National Party)
What is the main reason the Republican Party has historically raised more money than the
Democratic Party?
pgs. 319-322 (because the effort they have to reach donors through mail has dated back to the early 1960's and accelerated in the mid-1970's when postage and production costs were relative low.)
The differences between the Democratic and Republican Parties are MOST evident in
pgs. 316-319 Can't Find
a possible answer could be "Nationally"
another possible answer could be that the answer is found within another group of pages: p321 - Parties in Congress.
The single greatest influence on an individual's first party identification is
pgs. 322-325 (Parents) (see p322 under "Political Socialization", Sentence #1
African Americans, in general, strongly identify with the
pgs. 322-325 (Democratic Party)
Third parties do best when
pgs. 310-316
1. When they incorporate new ideas or alienated groups or nominate attractive candidates as their standard-bearers.
2. When declining trust in the two major political parties plagues the electorate.)
grassroots lobbying.
pgs. 330-333 ( Lobbying where the mission is to persuade ordinary voters to serve as advocates, hoping that lawmakers will respond to those pressures and the attendant publicity)
political action committees.
pgs. 330-333 (officially registered fund-raising organization that represents interest groups in the political process)
One of the primary dangers of the nomination campaign is that
pgs. 342-343
In the quest to win the party's nomination, a candidate can move too far to the right or left and appear too extreme to the electorate in November.)
Nomination campaigns
pgs. 342-343 (Phase of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election)
The head of a political campaign is usually called the
pgs. 343-346 (Campaign manager)
An officially recognized, federally mandated fund-raising committee for an interest group is
called a/an
pgs. 346-351 (Political Action Committee)
501(c) groups.
pgs. 346-351 (Nonprofit, tax exempt interest groups that can engage in varying levels of political activity; not wubject to FEC disclosure rules)
Putting forward the most favorable possible interpretation of a specific candidate is best
known as
pgs. 351-354 (Spin)
The primary function of presidential debates among candidates is to
pgs. 351-354 Skill: Evaluation
(Consolidate their voter base; and correct misconceptions about the candidate's suitability for office)
inoculation advertising.
pgs. 351-354 (Advertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched)
Proportional representation primaries are favored MOST by
pgs. 354-359 (Democrates)
the Electoral College.
pgs. 354-359 (Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president)
Problem recognition
pgs. 376-382 (A standard or value, that leads people to believe that the condition does not have to be accepted, and that it is something with which government can deal effectively and appropriately)
_______________ is the process of altering existing policy proposals or creating new
proposals within an issue area the government has previously addressed.
pgs. 376-382 (Routine formation)
The Department of Education was established during the administration of President
pgs. 376-382 (Dwight D. Eisenhower)
Medicaid was designed to provide health care
pgs. 382-387 ( For the poor; provides health insurance coverage for low-income Americans who meet a set of eligibility requirements)
Social Security was created in the
pgs. 387-392 (The New Deal or Social Security Act of 1935
The earned income tax credit program does all of the following EXCEPT
A) increase employment among low-income Americans.
B) refund part or all of the Social Security wages paid by the poor.
C) provide an incentive to work.
**D) help the unemployed.
E) increase consumer spending.
pgs. 387-392 (The answer is D)
How are supplemental nutrition benefits distributed to citizens?
pgs. 387-392 ( Administered at first as actual coupons; today the program is electronic, using an electronic debt program, similar to an ATM card.)
The deliberate use of taxing and spending policies to improve the country's economic
prospects is called
pgs. 392-394 (Fiscal Policy)
Studying rankings provided by the __________________ is one way to evaluate how
hospitable a country is to business
pgs. 394-396 (Economic Freedom of the World Index)
In 2009, Americans spent about _____ times more per capita on health care than they did in
pgs. 397-400 (23 times 1970 levels (p397) for a total of $8,160)
The U.S. often avoided participation in foreign affairs through a foreign policy of
pgs. 406-410 (Isolationism)
pgs. 406-410 (Taxes on imported goods)
President ________ led the U.S. into World War I.
pgs. 406-410 (Woodrow Wilson)
League of Nations.
pgs. 406-410 (A group that believed the collective security ideology, -an attack on one country is an attack on all countries)
The United States entered World War II after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in
pgs. 410-416 - (1941)
Cuban Missile Crisis
pgs. 410-416 (The 1962 confrontation over the deployment of ballistic missiles in Cuba that nearly escalated into war between the United States and the Soviet Union)
The Cold War ended when communist regimes in Eastern Europe collapsed in
pgs. 410-416 (1989)
Who attacked the United States on September 11, 2001?
pgs. 410-416 (19 members of the Al-Qaeda terrorist organization headed by Osama bin Laden)
Congress's role in foreign policy making includes which of the following?
A) Commanding the armed forces
B) Signing treaties
C) Appointing ambassadors
D) Appointing judges to international tribunals
E) Declaring war
pgs. 416-421 ( The answer is D)
The National Defense Act of 1916
pgs. 416-421 (Mandated the use of the term "National Guard" and gave the president the authority to mobilize the National Guard during times of national emergency or war)
President ____________ coined the term "military-industrial complex."
pgs. 416-421 ( President Dwight D. Eisenhower)
George Washington wanted the United States to "steer clear of permanent alliances," but he
was not an isolationist. He recognized the need for the United States to engage the rest of the
world to do what?
pgs. 406-410 (Make an alliance)
The Embargo Act was designed to
pgs. 406-410 (Legislation passed by congress in 1807 to prevent U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports without the approval of the Federal Government.)
The War of 1812
pgs. 406-410 (A war between the U.S. and Great Britain centering around economic hardships for the U.S. merchants)
Monroe Doctrine.
pgs. 406-410 (This document attempts to limit European interference in the western hemisphere)
manifest destiny
pgs. 406-410 (Theory that the U.S. was divinely mandated to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean)
Roosevelt Corollary
pgs. 406-410 (Concept developed by President Theodore Roosevelt early in the 20th century declaring that it was the responsibility of the U.S. to assure stability in Latin America and the Caribbean)
The Department of Homeland Security was created as a response to
pgs. 416-421
( 9/11 terrorist Attacks)
Why did the United States and the Soviet Union become enemies during the Cold War?
pgs. 410-416 (because both countries had weapons of mass destruction and wanted deterrence from either side and the U.S. wanted containment from the Soviet Union)
The World Trade Organization evolved from the
pgs. 410-416 (North America Free Trade Agreement)