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Chapter 10 - Chemistry

Chemistry
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Nuclear Fusion
Nuclei with smaller masses that combine to form one nucleus with a larger mass.
Lipid
Organic compound that contains many carbon-hydrogen bonds but few carbon-oxygen bonds.
Acid
Tastes sour and turns blue litmus paper pink, pH is less than 7.
Product
Substance shown on the right side of a chemical equation.
Carbohydrate
Body's main energy source, especially in respiration. Sugar is an example.
Nuclear Fission
Splitting nucleus into smaller pieces.
Base
pH value is greater than 7, tastes bitter, turns litmus paper blue, and may be slippery.
Reactant
Substance that's present before a chemical reaction starts.
Protein
Amino acids are combined to make a larger molecule.
Indicator
A substance that changes color as pH of solution changes.
Alkali metal
Element in the far left column of the periodic table.
Chain reaction
Process in which the products keep the process going.
Chemical bond
Force that holds two atoms together.
Chemical Reaction
Process in which a substance is transformed into a new substance.
Exothermic
Process that releases energy and there is an increase in temperature.
Neutralization
Process that produces water and salt.
Noble gas
Element in the far right column of the periodic table.
Plastic
A synthetic organic compound.
Radiation
Alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.
Starch
Natural organic compound.
Isotope
Protons are a different number than the neutrons.
Chemical reaction examples
Change in color, formation of gas, heat.
Endothermic
Needs constant energy to continue, usually a decrease in temperature.
Metals
Natural substances or formed from two natural substances.
Balanced equation
Equal numbers of atoms on both sides of the equation.
Organic compounds
Contain carbon and most of the time they contain hydrogen and oxygen too.
Diamonds
Substance made from carbon.
Synthesis reaction
New compound formed when added together.
Replacement reaction
Compound formed put atoms in different order.
Decomposition reaction
Simpler substances are formed.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Light and soft metals like calcium and magnesium.
Alkali Metals
Soft and extremely reactive like sodium, lithium and potassium.
Transition Metals
Hard and shiny metals like copper, iron, gold, nickel and zinc.
Electrolyte
Conducts Electricity when dissolved in water.
Radioactive tracers
Used to detect cancer tumors.
Metalloids
Silicon, boron and arsenic. Have properties similar to metals and nonmetals.
Nobel gases
Do not react naturally with other elements, like argon, neon and xenon.
Physical change
Substance does not change chemically, like sugar water, cutting hair, making trail mix.