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energy balance, sleep, diabetes

basal metabolism is

the energy expended when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state

which of the following is true about basal metabolism

it represents about 60-70 percent of total kcaolires used by a sedentary person during a day

which of the following is not associated with basal metabolism

physical activity

carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. she is 40 years old. carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. in her younger days, she lifted weights but sh has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. recently, carol was diagnosed with hypothroidism, which lowers metabolism. which of the following factors increases carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?

her walking routine

all of the following contribute to total energy expenditure except

caloric value of food

physical activity

includes daily activites as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting

the thermic effect of food

represents the kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food

all of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except

fidgeting accounting for 40 percent of total energy expenditure

the kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ____ of energy consumed


Bill expends 2500 kcalories per day. about what percent of kcalories will be from basal metabolism


which of the following does not have a significant association with obesity

type 1 diabetes

the best exercise for overweight people is


a regular physical activity program should include all the following except

a frequency of 2 times per week

for which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted


a physically active lifestyle may delay the onset and treat all of the following except


what is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions

adenosine triphosphate

restoration and growth take place during which sleep stages

three and four

the following statement is true about sleep stages three and four

growth hormone secretion reaches its peak

which of the following is not associated with sleep deprivation

heightened coordination

the human brain cycles into two main sleep states. they include

NREM and REM sleep

a sensation of falling and jerking awake for a moment as muscles relax is associated with which sleep stage

stage one

sleep spindles occur during which sleep stage

sleep two

stage ________ of NREM sleep respresents the beginning of actual sleep


which stage or state of sleep can last for the longest time period

stage two

mike wakes up in class momentarily groggy from the fire alarm. he was in which NREM sleep stage

stage three or four

which of the following statements about REM sleep is true

while dreaming, eyes may dart around as if watching a dream unfold

which of the following statements about human sleep cycles is true

typically, an individual experiences four to five sleep cycles each night

light alerts the biological clock to cease secreting which hormone that promotes sleep


which of the following statements about sleep is true

sleep and wakefulness generally occur in accordance with circadian rhythms

which of the following statements is not true regarding sleep apnea

in obstructive sleep apnea the brain does not send messages to the diaphragm

several times each day, john cannot stop himself from falling asleep. he is excessively tired during the day and has vivid hallucinations during REM sleep. john has what sleep disorder


which of the following dyssomnias is the most common in the general population


which of the following is not a parasomnia sleep disorder


which of the following statements about sleepwalking disorder is true

sleepwalking may be brought on by excessive sleep deprivation, fatigue, stress, illness, sedatives

which of the following statements is not true about the effects of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine on sleep

people who smoke one pack of cigarettes a day have been shown to sleep more deeply than nonsmokers

which of the following factors are suspected causes of diabetes

genetics, malnutrition, obesity

which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state


which of the following hormones is released to correct a hyperglycemic state


all of the following are characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus except

the least common form of diabetes


stimulates glucose storage as glycogen

a 29 year old obese hispanic american woman is approximately 24 weeks pregnant with her second child. her mother and sister both have type 2 diabetes, and her first child weight 7 pounts 12 ounces at birth. which of the following is a reason for this patient to be screened for the gestational diabetes

all of the above

each of the folllowing is recognized as a potential cause of, or contributor to, type 2 diabetes except

exercise associated decline in insulin production capability

which of the following is not a symptom of syndrome x


a diagnosis of impaired glucose intolerance is supported by which of the following results from the oral glucose tolerance test

two-hour serum glucose level of 140-199 mg/dL

american minority groups have higher incidences of diabetes


which of the following are considered "triggers for type 1 diabetes?

toxins, specific viruses, chemicals

which of the following are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes

hypertension, obesity, and advancing age

type 2 diabetes

is the more common form of the disease

patients being treated for diabetes should be advised to

see a dietician

which of the following is not a benefit of physical fitness

less muscle mass

most adults need eight hours of sleep each night


restoration and growth take place during the deepest sleep stages


the performance level of a surgeon who has worked all night is slightly better than that of a person who is legally too drunk to drive


over the course of a night, an individual spends more time in REM sleep than in NREM sleep


if an individual is awakened during stage one of NREM sleep, he or she will often deny that he or she was sleeping


most of an individual's deep sleep takes place in the first third of the night


although dreams may occur in all stages of sleep, they generally happen in stages three and four of NREM sleep


when dreaming, an individual has periods of no muscle tone or movement, except for eyes, diaphragm, nasal membranes and erectile tissue


memory can be impaired from missing the long REM sleep periods that come later in the sleep cycle


typically an individual experiences one sleep cycle each night


which body type has a stocky build and tends to gain both muscle mass and body fat easier than other body types


which body type has tall naturally thin and lean bodies


a healthy initial body fat range for males is _____ %

eight to 15

a healthy initial body fat range for females is ____ %


when attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, ____ percent for men warrants an obesity diagnosis


when attempting to use body fat conent to define obesity, _____ percent for women warrants an obesity diagnosis


body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields

body mass index

which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat

body mass index

which of the following testing methods is considered the most accurate way of measuring percent body fat

underwater weighing

central obesity is associated with an higher incidence of all the following except


all of the following statements about many popular diets are true except

they help people make permanent changes in eating habits

most weight loss programs result in

temporary weight loss

which of the following is not a major goal for weight cotnrol problems

5 pound weight loss per week

a daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week


what would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month


as one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to

increase physical activity

which of the following is not a characteristic of a fad diet

it uses scientific evidence, presenting pros and cons

which of the following is true about fat

it promotes fat gain more significantly than carbohydrtes or proteins

which of the following is true about the use of diet pills for weight reduction

diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects

when individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight loss is from

water, glycogen, and muscle tissue

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