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80 terms

nutrition test 5

energy balance, sleep, diabetes
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basal metabolism is
the energy expended when resting, but awake, and in a fasting state
which of the following is true about basal metabolism
it represents about 60-70 percent of total kcaolires used by a sedentary person during a day
which of the following is not associated with basal metabolism
physical activity
carol eats 800 kcalories a day to lose weight. she is 40 years old. carol has been walking briskly 60 minutes daily for the past 2 months. in her younger days, she lifted weights but sh has lost considerable lean body mass over the years because of inactivity. recently, carol was diagnosed with hypothroidism, which lowers metabolism. which of the following factors increases carol's energy output and promotes weight loss?
her walking routine
all of the following contribute to total energy expenditure except
caloric value of food
physical activity
includes daily activites as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting
the thermic effect of food
represents the kcalories needed to digest, absorb, and process ingested food
all of the following are true about contributors to energy expenditure except
fidgeting accounting for 40 percent of total energy expenditure
the kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ____ of energy consumed
5-10%
Bill expends 2500 kcalories per day. about what percent of kcalories will be from basal metabolism
1500-1750
which of the following does not have a significant association with obesity
type 1 diabetes
the best exercise for overweight people is
bicycling
a regular physical activity program should include all the following except
a frequency of 2 times per week
for which of the following activities would carbohydrate loading be warranted
marathon
a physically active lifestyle may delay the onset and treat all of the following except
cancer
what is the name of the high energy compound that cells use directly to fuel other chemical reactions
adenosine triphosphate
restoration and growth take place during which sleep stages
three and four
the following statement is true about sleep stages three and four
growth hormone secretion reaches its peak
which of the following is not associated with sleep deprivation
heightened coordination
the human brain cycles into two main sleep states. they include
NREM and REM sleep
a sensation of falling and jerking awake for a moment as muscles relax is associated with which sleep stage
stage one
sleep spindles occur during which sleep stage
sleep two
stage ________ of NREM sleep respresents the beginning of actual sleep
two
which stage or state of sleep can last for the longest time period
stage two
mike wakes up in class momentarily groggy from the fire alarm. he was in which NREM sleep stage
stage three or four
which of the following statements about REM sleep is true
while dreaming, eyes may dart around as if watching a dream unfold
which of the following statements about human sleep cycles is true
typically, an individual experiences four to five sleep cycles each night
light alerts the biological clock to cease secreting which hormone that promotes sleep
melatonin
which of the following statements about sleep is true
sleep and wakefulness generally occur in accordance with circadian rhythms
which of the following statements is not true regarding sleep apnea
in obstructive sleep apnea the brain does not send messages to the diaphragm
several times each day, john cannot stop himself from falling asleep. he is excessively tired during the day and has vivid hallucinations during REM sleep. john has what sleep disorder
narcolepsy
which of the following dyssomnias is the most common in the general population
insomnia
which of the following is not a parasomnia sleep disorder
hypersomnia
which of the following statements about sleepwalking disorder is true
sleepwalking may be brought on by excessive sleep deprivation, fatigue, stress, illness, sedatives
which of the following statements is not true about the effects of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine on sleep
people who smoke one pack of cigarettes a day have been shown to sleep more deeply than nonsmokers
which of the following factors are suspected causes of diabetes
genetics, malnutrition, obesity
which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state
glucagon
which of the following hormones is released to correct a hyperglycemic state
insulin
all of the following are characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus except
the least common form of diabetes
insulin
stimulates glucose storage as glycogen
a 29 year old obese hispanic american woman is approximately 24 weeks pregnant with her second child. her mother and sister both have type 2 diabetes, and her first child weight 7 pounts 12 ounces at birth. which of the following is a reason for this patient to be screened for the gestational diabetes
all of the above
each of the folllowing is recognized as a potential cause of, or contributor to, type 2 diabetes except
exercise associated decline in insulin production capability
which of the following is not a symptom of syndrome x
hypoinsulinemia
a diagnosis of impaired glucose intolerance is supported by which of the following results from the oral glucose tolerance test
two-hour serum glucose level of 140-199 mg/dL
american minority groups have higher incidences of diabetes
true
which of the following are considered "triggers for type 1 diabetes?
toxins, specific viruses, chemicals
which of the following are risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes
hypertension, obesity, and advancing age
type 2 diabetes
is the more common form of the disease
patients being treated for diabetes should be advised to
see a dietician
which of the following is not a benefit of physical fitness
less muscle mass
most adults need eight hours of sleep each night
true
restoration and growth take place during the deepest sleep stages
true
the performance level of a surgeon who has worked all night is slightly better than that of a person who is legally too drunk to drive
false
over the course of a night, an individual spends more time in REM sleep than in NREM sleep
false
if an individual is awakened during stage one of NREM sleep, he or she will often deny that he or she was sleeping
true
most of an individual's deep sleep takes place in the first third of the night
true
although dreams may occur in all stages of sleep, they generally happen in stages three and four of NREM sleep
false
when dreaming, an individual has periods of no muscle tone or movement, except for eyes, diaphragm, nasal membranes and erectile tissue
true
memory can be impaired from missing the long REM sleep periods that come later in the sleep cycle
true
typically an individual experiences one sleep cycle each night
false
which body type has a stocky build and tends to gain both muscle mass and body fat easier than other body types
mesomorphs
which body type has tall naturally thin and lean bodies
ectomorphs
a healthy initial body fat range for males is _____ %
eight to 15
a healthy initial body fat range for females is ____ %
16-24
when attempting to use body fat content to define obesity, ____ percent for men warrants an obesity diagnosis
25
when attempting to use body fat conent to define obesity, _____ percent for women warrants an obesity diagnosis
32
body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yields
body mass index
which of the following is not a way to estimate body fat
body mass index
which of the following testing methods is considered the most accurate way of measuring percent body fat
underwater weighing
central obesity is associated with an higher incidence of all the following except
asthma
all of the following statements about many popular diets are true except
they help people make permanent changes in eating habits
most weight loss programs result in
temporary weight loss
which of the following is not a major goal for weight cotnrol problems
5 pound weight loss per week
a daily deficit of 500 kcalories should result in a weight loss of about how many pounds per week
1
what would be the approximate weight gain, in pounds, of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month
4
as one finds his or her weight loss slowing during a weight control program, the best practice is to
increase physical activity
which of the following is not a characteristic of a fad diet
it uses scientific evidence, presenting pros and cons
which of the following is true about fat
it promotes fat gain more significantly than carbohydrtes or proteins
which of the following is true about the use of diet pills for weight reduction
diet pills do not lead to long-term changes in weight and tend to have side effects
when individuals lose weight quickly, most of the weight loss is from
water, glycogen, and muscle tissue