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129 terms

Human Digestive System

STUDY
PLAY
At the splenic fixture, the colon becomes the
descending colon
Enzymatic breakdown of which of the following compounds doesn't begin until it reaches the stomach?
proteins
Which of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of proteins?
pepsin
Which of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of fat?
pancreatic lipase
In the small intestine, which of the following enzymes breaks down maltose?
glucoamylase
The breakdown products of which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
fats
The enzyme alpha-amylase that digests polysaccharides is secreted by the __________.
pancreas
Which of these statements about water balance in the digestive system is true?
About 2000 ml /day enters by mouth.
About 7000 ml/day enters by secretion.
About 150-200 ml/day is lost in the feces.
All of these statements are true.
All of the above
Lipid-soluble vitamins cross the digestive epithelium primarily by _________.
diffusion
The enzyme amylase digests
polysaccharides
An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
trypsin
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
mouth
Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
lymphatic vessels
The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves
cotransport
This organ is primarily responsible for water absorption.
large intestine
Absorption of glucose from the gut lumen depends on
the sodium-potassium pump in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell, cotransporter proteins in the apical membrane of the epithelial cell, and higher sodium ion concentration in the lumen than in the epithelial cell.
If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably
lactose
All of the following are true of the process known as cotransport, except that
ATP is not required by the transport protein.
more than one molecule or ion is moved through the cell membrane at one time.
saturation phenomenon can be observed.
molecules can be moved against a concentration gradient.
only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
People who lack the enzyme ________ often experience GI upset after consuming milk and other dairy products.
lactase
Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the
stomach.
colon.
esophagus.
bladder.
pharynx.
bladder
Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
esophagus
pancreas
colon
spleen
appendix
pancreas
Digestion refers to the
mechanical breakdown of food.
chemical breakdown of food.
progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
progressive dehydration of indigestible residue, mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
filtration
ingestion
compaction
mechanical processing
absorption
filtration
Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
component of mucosa
secretes a watery fluid
coordinates activity of muscularis externa
sensory neural network
loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels
coordinates activity of muscularis externa
Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.
muscularis mucosa
Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the
submucosa
Which of these descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?

sensory neural network
secretes a watery fluid
coordinates activity of muscularis externa
component of mucosa
loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels
sensory neural network
A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the
oral cavity.
anal canal.
oropharynx.
esophagus.
stomach.
stomach
The activities of the digestive system are regulated by
the contents of the digestive tract.
intrinsic nerve plexuses.
hormones.
parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
all of the above
all of the above
Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called
peristalsis
The greater omentum is
a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera
The digestive tract is also referred to as the
alimentary canal and GI tract
The ________ mechanically digests ingested food.
stomach
Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
large intestine
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity

lubricates the cavity.
decreases friction.
prevents irritation.
secretes peritoneal fluid.
all of the above
all of the above
Which of the following is classified as being either squamous or columnar?

digestive epithelium
mucosa
lamina propria
muscularis mucosae
submucosa
digestive epithelium
Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the digestive system each day.
7
What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
lesser omentum
The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by
the central nervous system, short reflexes coordinated in the stomach wall, and digestive tract hormones
The small, semisolid mass of food formed during mastication is called a(n) ________.
bolus
Your patient with liver failure has a firm rounded abdomen due to accumulation of fluid. This is known clinically as ________.
ascites
The circumferential folds that encircle the digestive tract are known as ________.
plicae
Match the term with its activity.

1. gallbladder
2. esophagus
3. pancreas

A) stores bile
B) secretes digestive enzymes
C) transports material to stomach
1-A, 2-C, 3-B
Mechanical digestion begins in the oral cavity; enzymatic digestion doesn't begin until food enters the stomach. Are these two statements true or false?
the first is true, the second is false
The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except
digestion of carbohydrates.
absorption of monosaccharides.
lubrication.
mechanical processing of food.
analysis of material before swallowing.
absorption of monosaccharides
Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except
aiding in speech.
partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.
sensory analysis of food.
manipulation of food.
mechanical processing of food.
parttioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx
Functions of the stomach include all of the following, except
absorption of triglycerides.
mechanical breakdown of food.
denaturation of proteins.
storage of ingested food.
initiation of protein digestion.
absorption of triglycerides
Which of the following is a function of the tongue?
manipulation to assist with chewing
mechanical processing
secretion of mucins
sensory analysis
all of the above
all of the above
The technical term for chewing is ________.
mastication
The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is ________.
amylase
Within the oral cavity, both mechanical and chemical ________ begin.
digestion
Chief cells secrete
pepsinogen
Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?
cardia
The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the
fundus
The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the
body
The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the
pylorus
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
rugae
The enzyme pepsin digests
proteins
Lacteals
carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system.
Plicae and intestinal villi
increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
The pylorus empties into the
duodenum
Gastrin secretion in response to elevated luminal pH is an example of
local stimulation
The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
common bile duct and pancreatic duct
The villi are most developed in the
jejunum
Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
the microvilli
the villi
the plicae circulares
intestinal movements
all of the above
all of the above
The middle segment of the small intestine is the
jejunum
The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the
ileum
Which of these descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
causes gall bladder to contract
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
stimulates gastric secretion
stimulates gastric secretion
An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is
gastrin
The human liver is composed of ________ lobe(s).
four
The fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the
common bile duct
Each of the following is a function of the liver, except
inactivation of toxins.
synthesis of plasma proteins.
storage of glycogen and iron reserves.
synthesis and secretion of bile.
antibody production.
antibody production
The basic functional unit of the liver is the
lobule
The Kupffer cells of the liver
present antigens.
are phagocytic.
destroy bacteria.
destroy RBCs.
all of the above
all of the above
peptidases and proteinases.
lipases and amylase.
nucleases.
all of the above
lipases, amylase, peptidases, and proteinases.
all of the above
The pancreas produces ________-digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes.
protein
The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the
falciform ligament
Bile is stored in the
gallbladder
Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include
amylase.
trypsin (as trypsinogen).
lactase.
trypsin (as trypsinogen) and amylase.
trypsin (as trypsinogen), amylase, and lactase.
trypsin and amylase
Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
causes gall bladder to contract
stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
stimulates gastric secretion
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
causes gall bladder to contract
Which of the following is not a component of the hepatic triad found at the edges of a liver lobule?
hepatic portal vein
central vein
hepatic artery
bile duct
None of the above-all are present in the hepatic triad.
central vein
The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the
jejunum
The essential functions of the liver include
hematological regulation.
bile production.
metabolic regulation.
all of the above
metabolic regulation and bile production.
all of the above
the delivery of bile.
acid production by the stomach.
the composition of pancreatic secretions.
the composition of pancreatic secretions and the delivery of bile.
acid production by the stomach, the composition of pancreatic secretions, and the delivery of bile
acid production by the stomach, the composition of pancreatic secretions, and the delivery of bile
In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
rich in enzymes
In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
rich in bicarbonate ion
In response to the arrival of acid chyme in the duodenum, the
blood levels of secretin rise
A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would
increase gastric secretion.
decrease intestinal motility.
decrease gastric secretion.
increase intestinal motility.
interfere with both intestinal motility and gastric secretion.
decrease intestinal motility
An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in
inability to digest protein.
undigested fat in the feces.
jaundice.
undigested fat in the feces and jaundice.
undigested fat in the feces, jaundice, and inability to digest protein
undigested fat in the feces and jaundice
If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of
cholecystokinin.
secretin.
amylase.
gastrin.
bilirubin.
amylase
Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
blood in the feces
impaired digestion of protein
overproduction of blood plasma albumin
elevated levels of blood glucose
jaundice
jaundice
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
portal hypertension and ascites
jaundice
increased clotting time
all of the above
jaundice, portal hypertension and ascites only
all of the above
Nutrients are absorbed by all of the following, except
cotransport.
diffusion.
facilitated diffusion.
active transport.
osmosis.
osmosis
Functions of the large intestine include
absorption of bile salts.
absorption of vitamins.
resorption of water and compaction of feces.
all of the above.
absorption of vitamins, resorption of water, and compaction of feces
absorption of vitamins, resorption of water, and compaction of feces
At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the
transverse colon
Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the
rectum
The saclike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the
cecum
The taenia coli are
longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall
Haustra are
expansible pouches of the colon.
A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the
appendix
________ is gas produced by bacteria in the colon as they metabolize indigestible carbohydrates.
Flatus
Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the
submucosal plexus
Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from
parasympathetic stimulation
A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the
uvula
The uvula is located at the
posterior margin of the soft palate
Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and bicarbonate ion.
parotid
Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
parotid
If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual
has difficulty eating.
cannot speak normally.
has a condition called ankyloglossia.
all of the above
has a condition called ankyloglossia and cannot speak normally
all of the above
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would
interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
reduce delivery of saliva.
cause mumps-like swelling of the face.
reduce delivery of saliva, cause mumps-like swelling of the face, and interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
cause mumps-like swelling of the face and interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
reduce delivery of saliva, cause mumps-like swelling of the face, and interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
The dangling process that aids in keeping food out of the nasopharynx is known as the ________.
uvula
The oral cavity performs sensory ________ prior to swallowing.
analysis
Parietal cells secrete
hydrochloric acid
The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is
gastrin
The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the
duodenum
Parietal cells secrete
intrinsic factor
A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in
a higher pH during gastric digestion
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for
pernicious anemia
Peyer patches are characteristic of the
ileum
Brunner glands are characteristic of the
duodenum
An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands is
enterocrinin
The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is
secretin
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is
choleceystokinin
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is
gastric inhibitory peptide
The gastroileal reflex
moves some chyme into the colon
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of
pancreatic acini
Which of these descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
stimulates gastric secretion
causes gall bladder to contract
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of
fats
Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called
mass movements
Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.
mass