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Alexis de Tocqueville

French philosopher, politician, and author; his work, Democracy in America, encouraged Americans to form their own culture rather than mimicking that of Europeans


sense of pride and devotion to a nation


devotion to the interests of one geographic region over the interests of the entire country

Monroe Doctrine

(1823) President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the America's and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility

Missouri Compromise

(1820) an agreement that allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state and outlawed slavery in any territories or states north of the 36,31 N. latitude

spoils system

a politicians' practice of giving government jobs to his or her supporters

Indian Removal Act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans whi lived east of the Mississippi River

Trail of Tears

(1838-39) an 800-mile forced by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory


break away from

Nullification Crisis

a dispute led by John C. Calhoun that said that states could ignore federal laws if they believed those laws violated the Constitution

Industrial Revolution

a period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s

National Road

aka the Cumberland Road, when it was completed in 1841, it strectched from Cumberland, Maryland 800 miles west to Vandalia, Illinois

Erie Canal

canal running from Albany to Buffalo, NY; completed in 1825

Robert Fulton

American engineer and inventor; built the first commercially successful full-sized steamboat, the Clermont, which led to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people

Samuel F. B. Morse

American artist/ inventor; applied scientists'discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph

Eli Whitney

American inventor whose cotton gin changed harvesting procedures and enabled large increases in cotton production; introduced the technology of mass production through the development of interchangable parts in gun- making

King Cotton

name given by Southerners to indicate the economic and political importance of cotton production in the southern states

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