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Sociology 1010

Test 2 Questions and Answers
Which of the following is not one of the key characteristics of social interaction?
-Social interaction is central to all human social activity.
-People respond to a situation differently depending on what they think is at stake for them.
[Social interaction is similar across time and place.]
-People influence each other's behavior through interaction.
-Elements of social structure affect all interaction and can produce different personal outcomes.
Define Social Structure
An organized pattern of behavior that governs people's relationships
Keri is a mother, a parole officer, and a softball player. These positions make up Keri's
Status Set
_____ statuses are those that we cannot change, control or choose.
statuses that we can change, control or choose through effort or actions.
Cameron was scheduled to work on Thursday from 9:00am until 3:00pm. His sociology final was scheduled for 2:00 pm. Cameron was likely experiencing
Role Conflict
"Human reality is socially constructed reality." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?
symbolic interaction
Define Social Exchange Theory
suggests that any social interaction between two people is based on each person's trying to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs.
"Interaction often involves a dominant-subordinate relationship." This statement best matches which of the theories explaining social interaction?
Feminist Theory
Timothy and Kiley were asked to violate a norm by their sociology professor. They choose to go to the mall and use the up-escalator to go down and the down-escalator to go up. They watched the reactions of others and wrote a paper describing the experience. Which methodological tool were Timothy and Kiley using?
"Actions speak louder than words." This statement represents which concept of social interaction?
nonverbal communication
In As You Like It, Shakespeare wrote that "All the world is a stage and all the men and women merely players." This illustrates which concept?
Dramaturgical Analysis
persons who interact with one another,persons who share a common identity, and persons who share a sense of belonging are all criteria for what?
Social Groups
_____ groups meet our expressive (or emotional) needs; _____ groups meet our instrumental (or task-oriented) needs.
Primary; secondary
Those that share a sense of identity and exclude and devalue outsiders are considered
_____ are those people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as being different.
A/n _____ is a group that shapes our behavior, values and attitudes, and influences who we'd like to be in the future.
Reference Group
Asch's studies, in which subjects were asked to match lines on cards, showed that
Group membership generates conformity
Define Groupthink
the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment that results from in-group pressures. f. a decision-making process where an individual weighs group decisions against his/her own before making a decision.
What are Social Networks?
Webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.
_____ are webs of social ties that link individuals to one another.
Formal Organizations
Define Bureaucracy
a formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people.
At the Barkley Company, there are forty employees. Addison is the President and CEO. Below her, Jack and Ross, are managers. The thirty-seven others work below the managers in the storeroom or on the show floor. Which of Weber's ideal characteristics does this exemplify?
Hierarchy of Authority
In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?
Bureaucratic Ritualism
In applying to three colleges, Layla spent several days completing nearly identical forms. Each asked for her high school grades, roommate preferences, and parent's financial status. This is an example of which of the shortcomings of bureaucracies?
Conflict Theory
Define Deviance
A behavior that violates expected rules or norms.
A/n _____ is a negative label that devalues a person and disqualifies him/her from full social acceptance.
_____ refer(s) to the technique and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.
Social Control
Define a Sanction
Rewards or punishments for obeying or violating a norm.
Who would believe that deviance and crime are normal parts of the social structure that maintain society?
Durkheim introduced the term anomie, but _____ elaborated on the concept to explain how social structure can create deviance.
According to Merton, Americans are taught to strive towards the "American Dream" of economic success. He called these aspirations
Cultural Goals
Henry's family was unable to pay their bills last month. He wanted the best for his family, but had a low-paying job. To "earn" some extra cash, be began selling fraudulent tickets at the Civic Center. According to Merton, Henry is a/n
Harold started using drugs when he was 17. By the time Harold turned 20 he was living on the streets. According to Merton, Henry is a/n
Who asks why some deviant acts are defined as criminal while others are not.
Conflict Theorists
Conflict theorists often focus on which type of crime?
White Collar Crime
Mr. Davis, an accounting executive at Alpha Inc., participated in tax fraud for several years, which saved the company millions of dollars in taxes. Mr. Davis is guilty of
Corporate Crime
The symbolic interaction perspective suggests that people _____ deviant behavior.
The basic idea behind differential association theory is that
Most people learn deviant behavior through interaction
Define Labeling with Deviance
Society's reaction to behavior is a major factor in defining someone as deviant.
_____ deviance is the initial violation of a norm or law and can range from relatively minor offenses to serious offenses.
The criminal justice system relies on three major approaches to crime control. Which of the following is not one of these approaches?
Who is the global leader in the number of inmates per capita.
The U.S.
True or False- In the article "Code of the Street" by Elijah Anderson, he argues that interpersonal violence and aggression is part of the code of the street in inner cities poor neighborhood.
The conclusion in the article "The Impact of Internet Communications on Social Interaction" is that
face-to-face interaction is different from internet interaction.
The main topic in "Clique Dynamics" by Patricia Adler and Peter Adler is the study of _______.
In-Groups and Out-Groups
The article "The Social Organization of Toy Stores" by Christine Williams discussed about
race problem in the toy store. AND
gender problem in the toy store.
True or False- The main argument in article "The Medicalizaiton of Deviance" is that we redefine certain deviant behaviors as "illness" rather than as "badness", so that they are treated medically rather than punishment.
The main theoretical perspective used in article "The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison" by Jeffrey Reiman is what kind of perspective?