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Big Business and Labor 14.3
Terms in this set (24)
-1850s Poor Scottish immigrant
-superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad
-In 1899, his steel company manufactured more steel than Great Britain
-a process in which he bought out his suppliers - coal fields and iron mines, ore freighters, and railroad lines-in order to control the raw materials and transportation systems
-a process where companies producing similar products merge
-company that buys out the stock of other companies
-This philosophy grew out of the English naturalist Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution. In his book "On the Origin of Species", he described his observations that some individuals of a species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others do not. He explained that the process of natural selection weeded out less suited individuals and enabled the best adapted to survive.
John D Rockefeller
-established the Standard Oil company
-Took a different approach to mergers: They joined with competing companies in trust agreements
-participants in a trust turned their stock over to a group of trustees (people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation.) in return, the companies were entitled to dividends on profits earned by the trust. Trusts were not legal mergers. This man used a trust to gain control of the oil industry in America
-The Rockefeller standard oil Company of Ohio passed two or three percent of the countries crude oil.
-He got high profits by paying employees low wages and driving his competitors out of business by selling his oil at a lower price than it cost to produce it
-established the Rockefeller Foundation which provided funds to the University of Chicago and created a medical institute that helped find a cure for yellow fever.
-A powerful US capitalist or industrialist considered to have become wealthy by exploiting natural resources, corrupting legislators, or other unethical means
Captains of Industry
-during the Industrial Revolution,this was a business leader whose means of amassing a personal fortune contributes positively to the country in someway. This may have been through increased productivity, expansion of markets, providing more jobs, or acts of philanthropy
Sherman Antitrust Act
-this act made it legal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or other countries
The National Labor Union (NLU)
-The first large-scale national organization of laborers
-formed in 1866 by ironworker William H Sylvia. The refusal of some of the local chapters to admit African-Americans led to the creation of the Colored National Labor Union.
-This group persuaded Congress to legalize an eight hour day for government workers.
The Colored National Labor Union (CNLU)
-created when the national labor union chapters refused to admit African-Americans
-formed by African-American laborers and led by Isaac Meyers, a caulker from Baltimore
-they emphasized cooperation between management and labor and the importance of political reform
-they disbanded but many African-American laborers found a home in the Knights of labor.
The Knights of Labor
-organized by Uriah Stephens who focused his attention on individual workers
-The group's motto was "an injury to one is the concern of all"
-membership was open to all workers regardless of race, gender, or degree of skill. They supported an eight hour workday and advocated equal pay for equal work by men and women. They participated in strikes, or refusals to work, as a last resort and instead advocated arbitration
-they were the first union to welcome blacks and whites alike
-led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft unions.
-One approach to the organization of labor was craft unionism, which included skilled workers from one or more trades.
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
-Gompers was the president
-This focused on collective-bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions.
-These people use strikes as a major tactic. Successful strikes helped them win high wages and shorter workweeks.
A method of settling disputes in which both sides submit their differences to a mutually approved judge
Eugene V Debs
-attempted to form such an industrial union - founded the American Railway Union (ARU)
-some labor leaders felt that unions should include all laborers - skilled and unskilled - in a specific industry
-most of the new unions embers were unskilled and semiskilled labor's, but skilled engineers and firemen join too.
-although this group never recovered after the failure of a major strike (such as the Pullman Strike), added to the momentum of union organizing
-A labor activist who eventually turned to socialism, and economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth. Socialism carried to its extreme form - communism, as advocated by the German philosopher Karl Marx-would result in the overthrow of the capitalist system
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
-A group of radical unionists and socialists organized this group.
-also called the Wobblies
-headed by William Haywood or "Big Bill", this group included minors, lumberers, and cannery and dockworkers. This group welcomed African-Americans, but membership never talked one hundred thousand. It's only major strike victory occurred in 1912.
-believed all workers should organize as a class and it still exists today
Japanese and Mexican Workers
-organized a successful strike in the sugarbeet fields of California.
-formed the sugarbeet and farm laborers' Union of Oxnard.
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
-Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) workers strike after their second wage was cut in two months.
-it impacted 11 states and shut down 2/3 nations tracks
-president Hayes used federal troops to end strike
-people gathered here to protest police brutality - a striker had been killed and several had been wounded at the McCormick Harvester plant the day before. The police were bombed and police fired on the workers. Many people died. Eight were convicted; four were hanged; one committed suicide in prison
The Homestead Strike
-Henry Clay Frick cut wages by 20%. He hired guards from Pinkerton Detective Agency to protect the plant so that he could hire scabs, or strikebreakers, to keep it operating
-The steelworkers forced out the Pinkertons and kept the plant closed until the Pennsylvania National Guard arrived on June 12.
Mary Harris Jones
-One of the most prominent organizers in the women's labor movement.
-she supported the great strike of 1877 and later organized for the United Mine Workers of America (UMW)
-she endured death threats and jail with the coal miners, who gave her the nickname Mother Jones
-she influenced the passage of child labor laws
-A 16-year-old girl who became the first female organizer of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. a garment worker from the age of eight, she supported the uprising of the 20,000, A 1909 seamstresses strike that won labor agreements and improved working conditions for some strikers
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
-A fire broke out here and spread swiftly through the oil soaked machines and piles of cloth, and engulfing the eighth, ninth, and 10th floors.
-As workers attempted to flee, they discovered that the company had locked all but one of the exit doors to prevent theft
-the unlocked door was blocked by fire.
-The factory had no sprinkler system, and the single fire escape collapsed immediately.
-In response, the state of New York set up a task force to study factory working conditions because many people died in this fire