Grammar & Mechanics Praxis 5038
Terms in this set (79)
made up of "to" and the base form of a verb (to order, to abandon)
verb form ending in (ing or ed) operates as an adjective ("barking" dog, "painted" fence)
verbal - gerund
a verb ending in "ing" that functions as a noun/subject ("Laughing" is good for you)
possessive nouns are usually used with gerunds (running is fun)
the noun to which the pronoun is referring (Sally=antecedent for her)
A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb (No nouns) and tells:
- where: there, here, outside
- when: now, then, later, immediately
- how: quickly, slowly, stupidly
- how often/long: frequently, never
- how much: hardly, extremely, too, more
language that is meant to be evasive or conceal (downsized = fired loss of job
literal, dictionary meanings of a word
the study of sounds of language
The study of the structure of words
the study of the meaning in language, in language, study of meanings of words
the study of the structure of sentences, studies of the rules for forming admissible sentences
noun; the art or study of correct spelling according to established usage / the aspect of language study concerned with letters and their sequences with words / spelling
two sentences joined incorrectly with only a comma
dangling modifiers have no noun or pronoun to modify, change the dangling modifier to an independent clause., Word, or group of words, that does not modify any words in the sentence
gives a command or makes a request and ends with a period
The history of a word.
A sentence that expresses wishes or conditions contrary to fact.
A sentence composed of at least two independent clauses.
A sentence with two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
A verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, a place, a thing, or an idea
Jack "burned" the hot dogs
An action verb is iNtransitive if it does NOT direct action toward someone or something
The Fire "burned" brightly.
A tense of verbs used in describing action that has been completed or began in the past.
Pronouns that point out people, places, or things without naming them.
Has a subject and a predicate.
P for president when it is part of the person's name
Historical periods (Civil War, Middle Ages)
Not algebra, history
The word earth is not capitalized when you use the word "the" and talk about "the" earth
has a subject and a verb but the reader is left dangling
it depends on something else to make it a complete sentence
A clause that has a complete meaning AND has a subject and a verb
A word that joins words or groups of words (and and but, yet, so, or, because)
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Not only...but also
All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests
distinguishing a verbal from a verb
A verb is a word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence. A verbal is a word, or words functioning as a verb.
For example: She slept in.
slept functions as the verb because she is performing the action.
Jogging three miles every day is good for you.
To jog is a verb, but in this case, jogging is used as a verbal.
parts of speech
(8) Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections
names a person, place, thing, idea, or quality
(idea=democracy, truth & quality=beauty, caring, boredom)
articles (in titles)
a, an, the
conjunctions (in titles)
and, but, for, or, nor
prepositions (in titles)
short ones such as in and with
long ones such as throughout and without
Syman and Mimi's marriage (they share one marriage)
Kate's and Meg's toes (they don't share the same toes)
a word that stands in for a noun (her, its, who, you, what, your, he, she, everyone, nobody, each other, myself, etc.)
Subjective = the doer (subject) of the action
Objective = the receiver (object) of the action
Possessive = shows ownership
(I sing, sing to me, my song)
*remember it's I, it's me, it's she NOT her and it's he NOT him
a word that shows action (run, swim, jump) or state of being (be, appear, seem, feel)
present tense, past tense, future tense, present perfect tense, past perfect tense, future perfect tense
progressive verb forms
(6) action continues for awhile
present progressive (am eating), past progressive (was eating), future progressive (will be eating), present perfect (have been), past perfect (had been), and future perfect (will have been)
emphatic verb form
(3) uses (includes word do or did w.verb)
Emphasis: I do eat! I did eat!
Questions: Do I eat? Did I eat?
Negatives: I don not eat. I did not eat.
when to use present tense
present action, action that happens over and over, scientific facts, and headlines
ask who or what
a mood that represent an act or state (not as a fact but) as contingent or possible
"what if" = If I were (not I was) a magician, I would...
"If only" = If I were (not was) an eagle, I would...
Ask? Today I ..., Yesterday I..., Many times I have ...
today i cook, yesterday I cooked, many times I have cooked
lie and lay
Lie (to lie down on a bed) lie, lay, lain, lying
Lay (to place something, to set down) lay, laid, laid, laying
Lay works the same as pay and say
Lie (to tell a lie) lie, lied, lied, lying
a word describes a noun or pronoun and tells:
- which one: that, this, these
- what kind: red, large, thick, cloudy
- how many: six, four, many, several
Ask? which one, what king, or how many to decide if an adjective or an adverb is needed
kinds of verbs
linking, transitive, intransitive, and auxilary
be (and all of its forms) am, was, will, be, have been, will have been
describe the subject but no action is really taking place, as in "Tori IS [linking] tired (verb)"
a verb that links the subject to an adjective or more info about the subject
linking verb vs. action verb
Marcella "feels" [linking - describes the subject] tired (verb)
The vet "feels" [action] the cat's tummy carefully [adverb]
big, bigger, biggest
For short adverbs/adjectives add -er, -est
For long adverbs/adjective use more and most, as in "I am capable, you are more capable, she is most capable
Introduce prepositional phrase and always used with a noun or pronoun (about, above, across, after, against, among, around, at, before, behind, beside, between, beyond, during, except, for, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, over, past, through, to, toward, under, until, up, with)
A phrase that begins with a preposition: "to" the store, "down" the street, "under" the car, etc.
shows a relationship between the noun and another word in the sentence
successive sentences or phrases follow the same pattern of wording in order to emphasize and idea
Express feeling (wow, gee, oops)
Say Yes or No
Call attention (yo, hey, whoa)
Indicate a pause (well, um, hmm)
Stand alone for emphasis, as in "Wow! That's a beautiful dress."
has a subject but not verb (my big fat mouth)
only direct questions get question marks
is a strong type of comma, for between two complete sentences that show us where to pause in a sentence
Function: to allow two closely related COMPLETE sentences to work as one
use a semicolon before clauses that are introduced by "for example, that is, or namely) "Olivia is an excellent student; for example, she has made A's on all her tests.
shoe a relationship between two complete sentence (also, besides, indeed otherwise, therefore, in fact)
adverbs in sentences used as a conjunctions
a sentence missing a subject OR verb or complete thought
missing MAIN CLAUSE
A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverb
A sentence composed of at least one main clause and one subordinate clause
phrase that includes the participle, its modifier, and its objects; example: The child, FLASHING A MISCHIEVOUS SMILE, turned and walked away.
object of a sentence
the person or thing who has the verb done to it, passive voice
A noun or noun substitute that is placed directly next to the noun it is describing: My student, Sidney, makes me want to retire.
- when you want to say "here comes an example" or "here's what I'm talking about" as in There's only one sport for me: alligator wrestling
- before some lists (introduced saying" these are," "the following," or "these things"
- not if list comes after a verb or preposition
- before subtitles
- with expressions of time
- with greeting part formal letter
- after words such as "caution," "wanted," or "note"
subject is said to be something or do something that is not logically possible
"The purpose (subject) of the book persuades (purpose is incapable of persuasion) readers to get involved in community service.
In the sentence above, the subject is "purpose." However, the purpose itself cannot "persuade," as the verb in this sentence states. In other words, a purpose is not capable of the perceptive act of persuading. This faulty predication can be easily revised so that the subject and verb are relevant to each other:
The author of the book persuades readers to get involved in community service.
verbal - infinitive
An infinitive is a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. An infinitive starts with the WORD "to" (not the preposition) and the base of the verb. Examples: to run, to jump, to find, etc.
DO NOT confuse infinitives with a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase will have a noun or pronoun (object of the preposition) following it, not a verb.
Sara wants to learn Spanish. "To learn" is an infinitive.
Sara will go to the store. "To the store" is a prepositional phrase.
types of verbals
infinitive, participles, gerunds
verbal - participles
a word formed from a verb (e.g., going, gone, being, been ) and used as an adjective (e.g., working woman, burned toast ) or a noun (e.g., good breeding ).
The old "laughing" lady dropped by to call.
Describes or modifies someone or something in the sentence
the part of a sentence or clause that expresses what is said of the subject and that usually consists of a verb with or without objects, complements, or adverbial modifiers
An auxiliary verb (also known as a helping verb) is a verb that may come before the main verb in a sentence. Together the auxiliary verb and the main verb form a verb phrase.
They have played soccer for three hours this morning.
Have acts as the auxiliary verb, and played acts as the main verb, as it is conveying the action being done.
A sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
subject verb agreement
subject stays the same; verb must be singular or plural to match the subject
kinds of nouns
common, proper, concrete abstract, collective
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