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superclass agnatha

classes petromyzontida, myxini

class petromyzontida


class myxini


superclass gnathostomata

classes chondrichthyes, actinopterygii, sarcopterygii

class chondrichthyes

sharks, skate, and rays

class actinopterygii

ray-finned fishes

class sarcopterygii

lobe-finned fishes

buccal funnel

hood-shaped structure supported by a cartilaginous ring that serves as a sucking disc for attachment to a host


at the back of the buccal funnel....

external gill slits

there are seven ______ which lie just behind the eye


a single _______ locate middorsally on top of the head opens into an olfactory sac.

pineal organ

structure containing photoreceptors, marked by a small oval area behind the nostril

only vertebrates with body fluids isotonic to sea water, secret large amounts of mucus, rudimentary eyes, three pairs of barbels

hagfish characteristics

oral disc, separate external openings for each gill slit, dorsal median nostril, undergo metamorphosis (from ammocoete larva)

lamprey characteristics

laterally placed eyes and broad snout

shark characteristics

spiracle, ventral gill slits, enlarged pectoral fins fused to the head, dorsal denticles, spine

skate and ray characteristic

internal skeletons made of bone, bony scales, air bladder used for buoyancy

actinopterygii characteristics

fleshy lobes on the paird fins, a lung, some can withstand drying by encasing themselves in mucus and mud

sarcopterygii characteristics

placoid scales

sharks, skates, and rays scales

ganoid scales

rhomboid shaped, found in sturgeon, gars

cycloid scales

scales with smooth margins, found on teleosts

ctenoid scales

scales with tiny teeth, found on teleosts


structures on male sharks used in transferring spermatozoa to a female


part anterior to head (snout)


a pair of dorsal _____ posterior to the eyes are modified gill slits that open into the pharynx; serve for water intake when a shark is feeding.

lateral line

a white line on each side of the trunk, representing a row of minute, mucus-filled sensory pores used to detect the presence of other animals

cloacal opening

opening in between pelvic fins


large structure that has two large lobes and a small median lobe


thin, tubular sac on the right side of median lobe of liver

spiral valve

structure with cone-shaped folds, inside the valvular intestine

rectal gland

extension from dorsal wall of rectum, regulates ion balance


soft, elongated _____ lie along the dorsal body wall, one on each side of the esophagus


long and narrow, and lie on each side of the dorsal aorta, extend to cloaca

seminal vesicles

widening of sperm duct, which terminate into sperm sacs


a pair of _____ lie against the dorsal body wall, one on each side of the esophagus


bony gill cover

urogenital opening

opening just posterior to the anus


segmental muscles

swim bladder

long, thin-walled structure in a dorsal position in actinopterygii

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