8th Grade North Carolina Science EOG

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Terms in this set (97)
biotechnologyThe use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production. Increasingly applied to more advanced stages of food production in the form of radiation of meats and vegetables to prolong their freshness.contagionany disease easily transmitted by contactmutagenA chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.evolutionchange over timebiological evolutionhow living organisms have changed over time, ex: adaptationgeological evolutionhow earths surface has changed over time, ex: continental drifttechnological evolutionhow technology has changed over time, ex: telegraph to letters to cell phones and emailice corestrap gases from the atmospherefossilsfound in sedimentary rock, evidence for evolutionindex fossilswidely distributed organisms, lived a short time, ex: trilobites and ammonitestrace fossilsevidence for activities, ex: footprintsmoldhollow areacastsolid copypetrifiedturned into stonepreserved remainsamber, tar, iceLaw of Superpositionoldest rocks at the bottom, youngest at the topunconformityformed by erosion, new rock meets really old rockGeologic Time Scalerecord of event and organisms that have occurred throughout Earth's historyPrecambrian Timemakes up about 88 % of earth's history; when the oceans, atmosphere, and continents were formedPaleozoic Eramany animals lived in the ocean, began with "Cambrian Explosion" of lifeMesozoic EraAge of Reptiles, dinosaursCenozoic EraAge of Mammalserosionwater, wind, ice, or gravity, moving weathered earth materialsGlobal warmingIncrease in CO2 and temperature, ocean acidification, shrinking ice sheetsNatural selectionvariation in traits, genes are inherited, organisms with the more advantageous traits will reproduce and surviveMechanical weatheringbreaking down of rocks by physical forces, like pressure, ice wedging, freezing and thawingChemical weatheringbreaking down of rocks by chemicals, like water, acid, and oxidationamount of freshwater on earth3 %amount of salt water on earth97 %estuaryfound where fresh water dumps into the ocean, has brackish waterupwellingcold water comes up and brings nutrients with itintertidal zoneocean zone from the high tide line to the low tide line, organisms here must withstand changes in air, temperature, and waterneritic zoneocean zone from the low tide line to the edge of the continental shelfwhere upwelling occursneritic zoneopen ocean zoneocean's deepest zone; has three light zones: surface, transition, deeptwo most abundant gases in the oceancarbon dioxide and oxygenROVremotely operated vehicle, underwater robot that explores the oceansubmersibleunderwater vehicle that people can ride in to explore the oceanaquatic food webwaterterrestrial food weblandinterconnectedness between aquatic and terrestrial food websperson eats fish, shark eats Kevin, piranha eats Diquan, bear eats a salmondissolved oxygenoxygen dissolved into the water from the air and released from plants and algaepH of water7nitratesnitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorous compounds that plants need to groweutrophication"death of a lake," can be caused by an increase in nitratesbio-indicatorsliving organisms that show whether the water is good or bad, e. coli is badnon-point source pollutionrun off, can't tell where it is coming frompoint source pollutionyou know exactly where it was coming fromsyntheticman-made, fakealkali metalsvery reactive, explode with wateralkaline earth metalsreactive, burn different colorsconductivitycarry heat or electricitymalleabilitycan be bent or hammered into different shapesductilitycan be pulled into wiressolubilityability to dissolveprecipitatethe solid that forms when two liquids are mixed togetherlaw of conservation of mattermatter cannot be created or destroyed, during chemical reactions the reactants = the productscancercaused by a mutagen, the DNA is mutateddiabetesbody doesn't produce enough insulin or use it correctlybirth defectscaused by alcohol or chemicals like thalidomideasthmarespiratory passages constrict and do not allow air throughcrop yieldamount of crop harvested in a certain amount of timehalogensproduce salt during chemical reactionsnoble gaseselements that don't form compounds with other elementsatomic numbernumber of protons, number of electronsneutronsmass number - atomic numberprotonspositive, found in nucleusneutronsno charge, found in nucleuselectronsnegative, orbit around atomrenewable energy sourcenot limited: solar, hydro, windnonrenewable energy sourcelimited energy source- fossil fuelspros and cons of solarno pollution, renewable technology isn't efficient at gathering it, not at night or when cloudy, expensivepros cons windrenewable, no pollution noise, effects birds, some people don't like the way they look, only when windypros cons nuclearlots of cheap energy small amount of radioactive waste, people scared of itpros cons hydropowercheap, lots of energy, renewable effects nature, floods landpros cons coalcheap lots of pollution, nonrenewableproducermakes own foodconsumereats other thingsdecomposerbreaks down dead stuffcoexistencelive in habitat together, don't effect each othercooperationorganisms helping each other- school of fish, herd of gazellemutualismwhere both species benefit- sea anemone and clown fishbioticliving thingsabioticnonliving thingsparasitismwhere one organism benefits and the other is effected negativelyepidemicoutbreak of disease in one placepandemicoutbreak of disease that has spread across the globe