42 terms

Psychology: Memory

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Encoding
getting information into the brain
Storage
retaining encoded information
Retrieval
getting the stored information out of the brain
Sensory Memory
immediate sense; brief; recording of sensory information (fleeting) [looking at something for a split second but remembering what it looked like]
Short-Term
holds a few items briefly-> either stored or forgotten
Long-Term
almost permanent/limitless storehouse of memory
Working Memory (Short-Term)
focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and spatial info
Automatic Processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information
Examples of Automatic Processing
space: where you saw something in a text book
time: sequence of events
frequency: seen something X amount of times
well-learned: jingles; sayings
Effortful Processing
encoding requiring attention or conscious effort; produces durable, accessible memories
Examples of Effortful Processing
*studying for tests
*muscle memory
*rehearsal
*semantic encoding
Spacing Effect
distributed study yields better long-term memory vs. cramming
Serial-Position Effect
the ability to recall the first and last things on a list and not the middle
What do we encode?
visual- see
acoustic- hear
semantic- the meaning
Imagery
mental pictures
Mnemonics
memory aids
Amnesia
memory loss
Flashbulb Memory
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Implicit Memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; classical conditioning and motor skills
Explicit Memory
conscious memory of facts or experiences
Recall
retrieve information learned earlier
Recognition
identify items previously learned
Relearning
assesses the amount of the time saved when learning material for a second time
Priming
unconscious activation of particular associations in memory (getting a memory started)
Retrieval Cues
association of a target memory with other bits of information
Mood-Congruent Memory
recalling experiences consistent with one's current mood
Forgetting
(inadvertently neglect to attend to, do, or mention)
Examples of Forgetting
absent mindedness: inattention to detail
transience: storage decay
blocking: inaccessibility to store information
Distortion
tampering with a memory and thus changing it
Examples of Distortion
misattribution: confusing informations source
suggestibility: lingering effects of misinformation
bias: prejudice
Examples of Intrusion
persistence: unwanted memories
Interference
competition between memories
Proactive Interference
something learned earlier disrupts recollection of something learned later
Retroactive Interference
something learned later makes it harder to recall something learned earlier
Repression
defense mechanism that banishes consciousness
Anxiety
arousing thoughts, feelings or memories
Misinformation Effect
incorporation misleading information into one's memory-> after exposure to subtle misinformation many people misremember
Source Amnesia
can recall information but do no know where it came from (wrong or no source)
Memory
acquire, store, retain and later retrieve information
Displacement
certain capacity until you have to start to discard extra things or memories
Chunking
taking similar things and clumping them together in order to remember
Retrieval Failure
stored information but very hard to retriever (sometimes impossible)