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The system used by psychologists to classify psychological disorders is the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
Kimberly constantly thinks her immaculate house is dirty and spends most of her day cleaning, scrubbing, and straightening up. She could be diagnosed as having
obsessive-compulsive disorder
The conditioning and learning explanation for the etiology of anxiety disorders BEST accounts for the development and maintenance of
phobic disorder
The psychological disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with one's health and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses is
hypochondriasis
The class of psychological disorders characterized by people losing contact with portions of their consciousness or memory which results in disruption in their sense of identity is
dissociative disorders
Frank witnessed a horrible car accident but cannot remember anything about it. Frank appears to have
dissociative amnesia
After several weeks of feeling gloomy and being socially withdrawn, Marco has suddenly become extremely sociable and talkative. He doesn't seem to need any sleep, and he becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Marco's behavior is consistent with
bipolar disorder
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by
disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth.
The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to
the pancultural view of psychological disorders.
Research suggests that parents of children who develop eating disorders
are overly involved in their children's lives.
The difference between a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and a phobic disorder is that in GAD the individual knows what is producing the anxiety and can avoid the threat.
False
Somatoform disorders are physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors.
True
In individuals with dissociative identity disorder, the experiences of any one specific personality are often only recalled by that personality and not by the others.
True
Low levels of serotonin and reduced hippocampal volume appear to be associated with most forms of depression.
True
The catatonic subtype of schizophrenia is the most commonly occurring subtype.
False
Scientific theories are MOST directly associated with which goal of science?
understanding and prediction
Operational definitions are MOST closely associated with which major advantage of the scientific approach?
clarity and precision
Which of the following is an example of an independent variable that can be manipulated?
amount of exposure to caffeine
A researcher wants to see if a protein-enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study; the other group continues to receive ordinary rat chow. In this experiment, the rats' maze-running performance is the
dependent variable.
In experimental research, subjects that do not receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable are the
control group.
One of the disadvantages of the experimental method is
the artificial, contrived situations in which experiments are often conducted.
If A and B are highly correlated, which statement MOST accurately describes the relationship between A and B?
the score on A can be used to predict the score on B
Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that
overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals.
The primary reason descriptive/correlational research cannot determine conclusively that variables have a cause-and-effect relationship is because in conducting research
the researcher cannot control events or manipulate variables.
The primary reason for the ethical dilemmas psychologists encounter regarding the use of deception in research reflects concerns
about the possibility of inflicting harm on human subjects.
The abstract of a journal article provides
a concise summary of the entire article.
Which section of a journal article involving psychological research provides a brief summary of the research project?
abstract
Which of the following statements concerning anecdotal evidence is FALSE?
Anecdotal evidence rarely influences a person's opinion or behavior.
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called a theory.
False
The fifth and final step in conducting scientific research is to analyze the data and draw conclusions.
False
In an experiment, the control group consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.
False
The best way to reduce the risk of experimenter bias is to use a double-blind research procedure.
True
Self-report methods are useful in psychology, but can be problematic due to the tendency for people to give socially appropriate answers.
True
A person high in achievement motivation would be expected to show all but which of the following characteristics?
tendency to seek immediate gratification
People high in the need for achievement prefer _____ tasks since these tasks provide an appropriate combination of probability of success and incentive value for success.
moderately difficult
It is MOST accurate to describe a polygraph as
an emotion detector.
The idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known as
the facial feedback hypothesis.
Studies by evolutionary theorists of which of the following topics have drawn the MOST attention?
sexual behavior
Ekman, who has conducted a number of studies of facial expressions associated with emotions, found
six fundamental emotions that most everyone agrees on.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion,
emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system.
Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion suggests that we distinguish between the experience of different emotions on the basis of
our interpretation of the situation.
Research on happiness suggests that _____ are more important than _____.
subjective feelings; objective realities
CCK is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the communication of satiety in the hunger response.
True
Drive theories emphasize how internal states pull people in certain directions, while incentive theories emphasize how external stimuli push people in certain directions.
False
People have a limited number of biological needs, and people all over the world share the same basic biological motives.
True
Current research suggests that stress-induced eating is less common among people who are chronic dieters.
False
Women are more likely then men to experience more than one orgasm in a brief period of time.
True
There is some evidence that people who place an especially strong emphasis on the pursuit of wealth and materialistic goals tend to be somewhat less happy than others.
True
The notion that the subject matter of psychology should be the scientific study of conscious experience is MOST closely linked with
Wilhelm Wundt.
The _____ believed that consciousness developed in humans because it serves a useful purpose.
functionalists
Watson defined psychology as the scientific study of
behavior
Lisa taught her son to buckle his seat belt in the car by only allowing him to play one of his tapes on the car stereo after he was buckled up. Lisa taught him by applying the principles of
behaviorism.
Which pair of terms reflects the observation that "psychology returned to its roots" in the latter part of the 20th century?
cognitive perspective and biological perspective
Which of the following is NOT a major area of interest in the positive psychology movement?
positive life events
A psychologist who specializes in psychometrics is MOST likely to be interested in
the development of psychological tests to measure intelligence or personality traits.
Which of the following areas of specializations in psychology is involved with the development of curricula and the training of teachers?
educational psychology
Which of the following BEST describes the unifying theme that "psychology evolves in a socio-historical context"?
psychology and society both influence each other
According to Wilhelm Wundt, psychology's primary focus should be the scientific study of mental processes.
True
Functionalists relied heavily on the method of introspection to understand the nature and function of conscious processes.
False
A strict behaviorist would view nature as more important than nurture in determining an individual's observable responses to a given stimulus.
False
One of the main criticisms raised concerning both behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory is that these views are dehumanizing.
True
Until the 1950s and 1960s the dominance of behaviorism discouraged the study of mental processes in psychology.
True
In which class of problems is it necessary to carry out a sequence of intermediate actions in order to solve the problem?
transformation
Functional fixedness is the
tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
A shortcut, "rule of thumb," or guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions is
a heuristic.
In order to decide which car to buy, Jim makes a list of desired qualities and rates each of the cars he is considering on a scale of one to ten. After totaling the points each car receives on all the desired qualities, he is going to purchase the car with the most points. Jim is using the ______ strategy of decision-making.
additive
You have settled on two different cereal choices, fruit loops and cheerios. In order to choose between them you make a list of each of the cereal's attributes and rate the desirability of each trait. What strategy are you using?
additive
The tendency to overestimate the probability of improbable events reflects the influence of the
availability heuristic.
Which of the following heuristics has been shown by evolutionary psychologists to be both simple and surprisingly effective?
recognition heuristic
John, who has an IQ of 107, is BEST described as having
average intelligence.
Adoption studies comparing the intelligence of adopted children to their _____ provide support for the role of genetic factors in intelligence.
biological parents
Alex is very skilled at dealing effectively with the problems he encounters in everyday life. Sternberg would be MOST likely to predict that Alex has high
practical intelligence.
The failure to recognize that you can use a tool as a weight is an example of the problem-solving barrier known as functional fixedness.
True
Heuristics are guiding principles or "rules of thumb" used in solving problems or making decisions.
True
The availability heuristic involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.
False
When people rely on the recognition heuristic, they infer that alternatives that are recognized have a higher value than alternatives that are not recognized.
True
Identical twins reared apart are more similar in IQ than fraternal twins reared together.
True
If the heritability ratio of intelligence is 70%, this means that for you, as an individual, heredity determines 70% of your intelligence.
False
If a person views three lights that differ only in amplitude, the person would perceive the lights as
differing in brightness.
Courtney wears glasses to correct the far-sightedness in her left eye. If she were not wearing her glasses
the lens would focus images behind the retina in her left eye.

Poor Courtney :c
Night and peripheral vision depend mainly on _____, while daylight and acute vision depend mainly on _____.
rod cells; cone cells
Cells in the visual cortex that respond to lines of a specific width and angle of orientation that are located at any position in a receptive field are
complex cells.
The action of the visual receptors in the first stages of processing tends to support the
trichromatic theory of color vision.
Feature analysis assumes that we progress from individual elements to the whole in the formation of our perceptions. This is a case of
bottom-up processing.
When watching a wild car chase scene in a movie we can be thankful for_____, which allows us to experience the illusion of movement.
the phi phenomenon
A perceptual hypothesis
is an inference about what form could be responsible for a pattern of visual stimulation.
When your psychology professor is lecturing to your class, your professor can tell which students are sitting in the first, second, third, etc., row, in part because students in the closer rows obstruct his/her view of students in more distant rows. This illustrates the depth perception cue of
interposition.
When we view cars parked on a distant parking lot we know that the cars are not actually the size of toy cars because of a perceptual
constancy.
A summary of the development of psychologists' understanding of color vision and pitch perception BEST illustrates which unifying theme in psychology?
psychology is theoretically diverse
Vision begins when electromagnetic wave energy enters the eye through the cornea and pupil and is focused on the retina by the lens.
True
Approximately 90% of the axons from each retina travel through the superior colliculus before traveling to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and on to the primary cortex.
False
Color is a physical property of light.
False
Impossible figures are objects that exist in three-dimensional space but cannot be accurately represented in two-dimensional pictures.
False
Both the brightness of a color and the loudness of a sound are related to the physical property of amplitude.
True
At the end of the _____ stage of prenatal development, the developing organism is about one inch long and has already developed most of the vital organs and bodily structures.
embryonic
Developing structures generally are most vulnerable to damage from environmental factors during the _____ of prenatal development.
embryonic stage
Which of the following is NOT associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy?
heart defects
During Erikson's crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt, a child should begin to take some responsibility for his feeding and dressing. As a result, the child should gain a sense of self-sufficiency. This stage occurs from _____ years of age.
1 - 3
Systematic problem-solving efforts are associated with individuals in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
formal operational
Suggesting that a poor man who stole food to feed his family was right, because human life takes precedence over rules, is an example of
postconventional moral reasoning.
The adolescent growth spurt begins and puberty occurs approximately _____ in females than in males.
two years earlier
Harry has always been a vital and active individual. Recently however, he has begun having difficulty remembering newly learned information after brief periods of time. What disorder are his symptoms indicative of?
Alzheimer's disease
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
males tend to exhibit slightly better verbal skills than females
Cognitive theories of gender role development emphasize
self-socialization.
During the second phase of prenatal development most of the vital organs and body systems begin to form in the developing embryo.
True
Cross-cultural studies of infant attachment suggest that attachment is universal, and that attachment patterns are not influenced by a culture's child-rearing practices.
False
Centration, irreversibility, and egocentrism are basic flaws associated with concrete operational thinking.
False
Boys and girls who mature late seem to experience more subjective distress and emotional difficulties with the transition to adolescence than other adolescents.
False
Some studies have found that males tend to exhibit more cerebral specialization than females.
True
The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
encoding - storage - retrieval
Which of the following is NOT listed in the textbook as a method to enrich encoding of to-be-stored information?
rote memorization
The observation that when a flashlight is waved quickly through the air in a circular pattern, you perceive a circle of light and not just a "single point" of light is consistent with the functioning of your
sensory memory.
Rehearsal is MOST beneficial for maintaining information in _____ memory.
short-term
The _____ component of working memory serves as the interface between working and long-term memory.
episodic buffer
The idea that when you think about a word it triggers related words is referred to as
spreading activation within a semantic network
If you try to remember something but cannot, yet know the information is in memory, you are experiencing the
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
If you incorrectly recall your psychology professor as saying "Psychology is a poor choice for a college major," when in reality it was really your philosophy professor who made the statement, you would be making a
source-monitoring error.
Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs due to
the passage of time.
Which area of the brain is associated with the consolidation of long-term memories?
hippocampal region
According to Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, semantic encoding is a relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus.
False
In Baddeley's modularized view of working memory, the temporary store that serves as an interface between working memory and long-term memory is the executive control system.
False
Information in long term memory has been shown to be organized in schemas.
True
Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs due to the fact that memory traces fade over time; while interference theory argues that forgetting takes place because of competition from other material in long term memory.
True
In a study of psychiatric patients hospitalized for post-traumatic or dissociated disorders, one-third of those who reported childhood abuse had experienced complete amnesia for the abuse at some point in their lives.
True
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people.
Jill assumes her new biology professor is probably studious and somewhat introverted just like her other professors. Jill's assumption is based on
a stereotype.
Consistent with the fundamental attribution error, when an acquaintance fails an exam, you would tend to attribute their failure to the _____ and if you fail an exam, you would tend to attribute your failure to the _____.
lack of intelligence; difficulty of the exam
According to Hazan and Shaver's model of infant attachment and romantic love, adults with which of the following attachment styles are most likely to have satisfying, interdependent, and long-lasting relationships?
secure
In general, messages that present _____ arguments are effective in persuasion because that style of argument tends to increase the credibility of the source.
two-sided
In Milgram's (1963) study of obedience, subjects
were ordered to deliver painful electric shocks to a stranger.
In his Stanford Prison study Zimbardo found that
situational factors have a powerful impact on social behavior.
Research on the bystander effect indicates that the probability of receiving needed help
decreases as group size increases.
Censoring dissent, pressuring to conform, omitting contradictory evidence, and polarizing ingroup and outgroup are basic features of which of the following?
groupthink
Behaviors that encourage prejudice and discrimination occur most frequently following threats to an individual's
social identity.
People from individualist cultures appear to be less prone to the fundamental attribution error and more prone to use the self-serving bias.
False
Individuals' perceptions of their romantic partners seem to reflect their ideals for a partner more than reality.
True
Sternberg argues that intimacy reaches its peak in the early phases of love and then erodes.
False
According to Hazan and Shaver, romantic love is an attachment process, and people's intimate relationships in adulthood follow the same form as their attachments to their preschool playmates.
False
The elaboration likelihood model of attitude change suggests that the central route to persuasion is associated with more enduring attitude change.
True
Insulation is to hot water pipes as the _____ is to an axon
synapse
The part of the neuron that has branched extensions that are specialized to receive information are the
dendrites.
The space between a terminal button and a dendrite is referred to as the
synaptic cleft.
Sensory information is carried from your eyes to your brain by way of
afferent fibers.
Generally speaking, the presynaptic receptor refers to the receptor located on the neuron that _____ the neurotransmitter, whereas the postsynaptic receptor refers to the receptor located on the neuron that _____ a neurotransmitter.
releases, receives
Which of the following is NOT a structure of the hindbrain?
cerebrum
The rewarding effects of electrical stimulation of the brain seem to be mediated by
activation of dopamine-releasing neurons.
Theodore suffered a stroke recently, and now he finds he constantly hears a buzzing sound in his ears. In this case, it is likely that the stroke occurred in Theodore's
temporal lobe.
When an object is placed unseen in the left hand of a person who has had split-brain surgery, the person will
not be able to describe it.
The "master gland" of the endocrine system is the
pituitary gland.
Results from family, twin, and adoption studies strongly suggest that
genetics and experience jointly influence human behavior.
Schizophrenia may be related to abnormalities in neurotransmitter activity, structural defects in the brain, and genetic vulnerabilities. These observations MOST directly relate to the text's unifying theme that
behavior is determined by multiple causes.
The groundbreaking research on critical periods in neural development was conducted in the 1960s on which of the following subjects?
newborn kittens
Drugs that target the neurotransmitter GABA are often used to treat Alzheimer's disease.
False
The cerebellum is involved in the coordination of movement and physical balance.
True
The brain structure responsible for relaying sensory information to various locations in the brain is the thalamus.
True
The parietal lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex which is related to the sense of touch.
True
Genes are composed of millions of strands of chromosomes.
False
Fraternal twins share more genetic kinship than identical twins.
False
Veronica had been working at Zenex Industries for eight months when her boss asked to see her in his office. She thought he wanted to talk about a promotion so she was quite excited, but instead of giving her a promotion, the boss told Veronica she was being laid off as a result of company downsizing. Veronica could feel her heart pounding as she listened to the news. Veronica was able to get a new job, but every time her new boss asks to talk to her in private, Veronica feels a little faint. In this example, the unconditioned response is
her pounding heart when she heard she was being laid off.
Simon cringes every time he hears a dentist's drill, even when he is sitting in the waiting room of his dentist's office. In this example, cringing in the waiting room is
a conditioned response
While out trick-or-treating for Halloween, at first Billy's neighbors had to remind him to say "trick or treat" before they dropped their treats into his bag. As he continued to visit houses in the neighborhood, soon Billy would say "trick or treat" as soon as the neighbors answered the door. The treats he received were the _____ for his saying "trick or treat."
reinforcement
Extinction of an operantly conditioned response occurs when the response
is no longer followed by reinforcement.
At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At home, however, her parents do not check to make sure she washes her hands. When she is home, Jessi does not wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of
stimulus discrimination.
Food is an example of ____; praise is an example of ____.
a primary reinforcer; a secondary reinforcer
Behaviors that are acquired through intermittent, or partial, reinforcement instead of continuous reinforcement are
slower to be established, but more resistant to extinction.
A salesperson earns a commission for each item of clothing she sells. Commission on the clothing sales is an example of which type of reinforcement schedule?
fixed-ratio
When an organism learns a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring it is termed
avoidance learning.
A stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus in classical conditioning.
True
Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism has learned a response to a specific stimulus and does NOT respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.
True
In classical conditioning the response is emitted, while in operant conditioning the response is elicited.
False
If a rat presses a lever when a light is on and does not press a lever when the light is off the rat is demonstrating stimulus discrimination.
True
Escape and avoidance responses are both initially acquired through negative reinforcement.
True
Compared to psychologists, in their provision of therapy psychiatrists tend to
emphasize biomedical treatments more.
Freud considered _____ to be the most direct way to access the patient's unconscious or the "royal road to the unconscious."
dreams
Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy grew from the
humanistic tradition.
"What has been learned can be unlearned" is a central assumption of
behavior therapy.
Having a client construct an anxiety hierarchy is a critical component of
systematic desensitization.
A classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat an individual suffering from a spider phobia is _____, while a classical conditioning-based behavior therapy designed to treat alcohol abuse is _____.
systematic desensitization; aversion therapy
About _____ of psychotic patients respond favorably to traditional antipsychotic medication.
70%
Many specific therapies have turned out to be irrelevant or counterproductive when used with different cultural groups. This finding illustrates that
behavior is shaped by cultural heritage.
Which of the following statements concerning the sex of a therapist is MOST accurate?
if a client believes the sex of the therapist is important, it is important
Placebo effects occur when
people's expectations lead them to experience some change, even though they receive a fake or ineffective treatment.
The three general approaches to treatment of mental disorders include insight, or talk therapies, behavior therapies relying on the use of learning principles, and biomedical therapies.
True
According to Carl Rogers, the process of therapy is more important than the climate in which the therapy takes place.
False
The advocates of positive psychology maintain that the field has historically focused far too heavily on pathology, weakness, and suffering (and how to heal these conditions) rather than health and resilience.
True
Social skills training is a behavior therapy designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
True
In the 1990s many employers switched their health insurance plans from managed care systems to fee-for-service systems.
False
Less than one-half of all psychiatric inpatient admissions involve the rehospitalization of a former patient.
False
While many of the personality traits a person has may be relatively common, the overall combination of traits exhibited by that person is unique. The latter relates to the _____ aspect of personality.
distinctiveness
Which of the following personality traits is NOT one of the "Big Five" traits?
emotional
The portion of the personality that mediates between instinctual demands and the external social world is the
ego.
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person who is conservative, strict, and moralistic is strongly influenced by her
superego.
A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of
A man who has numerous reasons to hate his mother instead lavishes her with unrealistic amounts of attention and love. He is probably exhibiting the defense mechanism of
When people attempt to bolster their self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group, they are using
identification.
The crucial developmental task associated with the anal stage is
toilet training.
The personality theorist who believed man's primary motivation is striving for superiority was
Alfred Adler.
Humanistic personality theories focus on
an individual's freedom and potential for growth.
Janice was shown a series of cards with vague, ambiguous scenes and asked to describe what she thought was happening in each scene. Janice was given a(an) _____ test called the _____.
projective; TAT
According to Freud, the preconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
False
In explaining behavior, social learning theorist Walter Mischel is most interested in the influence of the situation.
True
Humanistic theorists, in contrast to behavioral and psychoanalytic theorists, take an optimistic view of human nature and emphasize the potential of humans for personal growth.
True
The humanistic approach deserves credit for making the self-concept an important construct in psychology.
True
The fact that the personal experiences of many theorists helped to shape their views and ideas of personality illustrates the idea that psychology is empirical.
False