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Weed's History Exam
Terms in this set (170)
Muhammad rededicated the __________ to worship the one true god.
Islam differs from Christianity in that it does NOT
require priests to mediate between the people and God.
A struggle in God's service is a
The Muslim body of law that includes interpretation of the Quran is known as
Which of the following is NOT a pillar of Islam?
participating in holy wars
Muhammad was born in the town of
Why were the Meccans against Islam?
They made money off of the pilgrimages of people who believed in traditional Arab gods
According to Muslim belief, Muhammad was visited by __________, who gave him a message from God.
the angel Gabriel
The veiling and seclusion of women were first the customs of what Arab peoples?
The journey of Muhammad to Yathrib was known as the
Muslim mystics who sought communion with God through rituals such as meditation and fasting were known as
The successors to Muhammad were known as
the surviving member of the Umayyad family founding what dynasty in Spain?
the Abbasid dynasty
The descendants to Ali and Muhammad's daughter Fatima are called
The majority of Muslims today are
Who moved the Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad?
Turk rulers were called
Which provinces of the Byzantine empire were first taken by the muslims?
Syria & Palestine
The group of Muslims who followed Muhammad's line of succession through Ali were called
Muslims called Christians and Jews
People of the Book
The scholar who wrote a famous collection of four-line stanzas called The Rubáiyát is
In what field were Muslims so advanced that Europeans attended Muslim universities to learn from them?
In what collection of stories did "Aladdin and His Magic Lamp" appear?
The Thousand and One Nights
Muslim artists were forbidden to depict what in their religious art?
A muslim algebra pioneer was
Which of the following economic systems did Muslims NOT create?
Which of the following was NOT a way in which Muslims could improve their social rank?
The art of handwriting perfected by Muslims is called
An Arab physician who wrote many books on medicine was
The ability to move up in social class is called
Babur claimed descent from what two people?
Genghis Khan and Tamerlane
The teachings of Indian holy man Nanak led to the rise of what religion?
The start of Muslim rule in Northern India was with the
For whom did Shah Jahan build the Taj Mahal?
for his wife
Which of the following was NOT a reason for Muslim success in defeating Hindu forces?
India had been isolated and unable to absorb new technology from other lands
A Hindu ruler was called a
A Muslim ruler was known as a
Under the later Delhi sultans, Hindus were allowed to practice their religion as long as they did what?
paid a poll tax
Babur, leader of the Turkish and Mongol armies, set up what dynasty in India?
the Mughal dynasty
The Mughal ruler who championed literature, art, and architecture was
Christians in the Balkans were forced to pay what as a "tax"?
their young sons
Ottoman law was based on
How did the Ottoman's get past the chains that protected the harbor at Constantinople?
The hauled their boats over land
Constantinople was renamed __________ by the Ottomans
Suleiman was known to his people as
The highest people in the Ottoman class structure were
Shah Abbas built a new Safavid capital at
The elite force of the Ottoman army were the
What group of people tried to take the city of Vienna?
What group won control of Iran in the late 1700s and made Tehran their capital?
Why was Maximilien Robespierre nicknamed "the incorruptible"?
He showed selfless dedication to the revolution
__________ was already a popular military hero when the French politicians turned to him
What was different about the suffrage extended to the people of France?
suffrage extended to all male citizens
What happened during the "September massacres"?
citizens killed approximately 1,200 prisoners
The __________ was a symbol of horror
Robespierre had embraced which enlightenment idea?
Rousseau's idea of the general will as the source of all legitimate law
In 1792, radicals took control of the Assembly, abolished the monarchy, and
declared France a republic
Attending civic festivals that celebrated the nation and revolution were signs of
Which French port city lent its name to what would become the French national anthem?
Robespierre was one of the main architects of the
Reign of Terror
When they fought against the French, Spanish patriots conducted
Which of the following European countries was Napoleon unable to conquer or place under French influence?
When Napoleon __________, he was exiled to Elba, an island in the Mediterranean
The __________ was a system in which nations met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe
Concert of Europe
How did Napoleon hide the stories of the Egyptian campaign and his worst losses in the military?
He had a network of spies and censored the press
Napoleon waged economic warfare through the __________, and Britain responded with its own blockade of European ports
Napoleon became emperor through what act?
Napoleon placed the crown on his own head
What was one of the chief goals of the Congress of Vienna?
to create a lasting peace
What event triggered the War of 1812?
Britain's attacks on American ships
What tactic did Russian forces use as they retreated eastward?
Which phrase best describes the process of enclosure?
taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
Which of the following was the most important source of power for the early Industrial Revolution?
Between 1830 and 1855, an American dentist used the first
In 1712, the steam engine was invited by
What was one effect of the agricultural revolution in Europe in the 1700s?
Greater food production triggered a population explosion
Who made improvements on the steam engine that allowed it to be applied to machinery?
How did the seed drill revolutionize farming?
The seed drill deposited seeds in rows instead of scattering them wastefully
Precise population __________ for the 1700s are rare, but some do exist
One technological improvement at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was the use of charcoal to __________ iron
With the beginning of the Industrial Revolution,
the rural way of life began to dissapear
Money used to invest in new business ventures is called
British merchants developed the __________ in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes
In the __________ following the opening of the world's first major rail line, railroad travel became faster and railroad building boomed
America began to compete with Britain's increased production with the invention of what machine?
the cotton gin
Before the steam locomotive, what method was used often to transport goods efficiently and cheaply?
The flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, and the waterframe were all inventions that were used to
increase textile production
Which invention revolutionized transportation and made possible the growth of railroads?
the steam locomotive
Which of the following statements is one reason why Britain was the first nation to industrialize?
Britain has many wealthy inventors
What were built in order to provide faster and cheaper methods of moving goods from place to place?
What is an entrepreneur?
a person who manages and assumes financial risks of starting new businesses
Which group benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution?
the middle class
One problem for the industrial working class poor was __________ drinking water
Why did many children work in factories in the 1700s and 1800s?
families needed the additional income to make ends meet
Workers often packed into tiny __________ as they struggled to survive in the slums
__________ were illegal at the start of the Industrial Revolution, but workers still tried to initiate reforms
Which of the following was NOT a danger of being a miner?
clean working conditions
Which group of people helped channel workers' anger away from revolution and toward social reform?
The Industrial Revolution led to rapid __________ as the demand for workers increased
How did the lives of middle class women differ from their wealthy and working class counterparts?
They stayed at home and raised their children
Which of the following statements about life for factory workers is true?
Factory workers faced a rigid work schedule
Who set up a utopian community in New Lanark Scotland?
According to British philosopher and economist __________, all laws or actions should be judged by their "utility."
According to Marx, the "have-nots" in society are the
Why was Marx wrong in his prediction that workers would unite across national borders to wage class warfare?
Nationalism won out over working class loyalty
Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo believed the poor could improve their lives by
having fewer children
Who put forth the theory of "scientific socialism"?
What did supporters of free-enterprise capitalism call their approach to economics?
What is utilitarianism?
the idea that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
Which group would be most likely to encourage poor workers to rebel against factory owners?
What is communism?
a form of socialism in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to a classless society
a form of socialism in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to a classless society
Metternich urged monarchs to crush rebellions in their countries and to help crush rebellions in neighboring lands
The difference between the liberal and conservative philosophies in early 19th century Europe is best explained by who?
Liberals supported a republican form of government, while the conservatives supported the monarchy
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of nationalism?
Britain, France, and Russia helped Greece become independent of the Ottoman Empire
Conservatives and liberals represented different
Universal manhood suffrage refers to
giving all adult men the right to vote
people fighting for their autonomy are hoping to attain
The Austrian, Russian, and Ottoman empires each contained diverse groups of inhabitants, and many of these groups had their own feelings of identity. These groups that shared a common heritage began to have feelings of
Adam Smith believed that
he free market should be allowed to regulate business activity
By the mid-1800's, social reformers were considered to be __________ because they urged workers to support socialism or other ways to reorganize property ownership
Serbia and Greece both successfully fought which nation for their independence?
the Ottoman Empire
Which of the following does NOT accurately describe the rule of Napoleon III?
He supported the constitution created by the National Assembly that gave the vote to all adult men
Which of the following events refers to the "February Days' of 1848?
Liberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic
Hungarian nationalists, led by journalist Louis Kossuth, demanded each of the following EXCEPT
the installation of a Hungarian monarch
At least 1,500 people were killed in 1848 during which period of revolt in France?
What nation successfully gained independence in 1831 following the spread of revolutionary ideas in 1830?
What similarity existed between the Italian and German revolts of 1848?
Reform movements and strong nationalist sentiments existed in both nations
A recession is best described as a
period of reduced economic activity
Which of the following men was known as the "citizen king'?
Those that favor extreme change are called
Which event from the following list eventually led to the other three events listed?
the French Revolution of 1848
__________, the highest social class in Latin American, were Spanish-born and dominated political and social life
Which event included in the selections below was caused by the other three remaining events provided?
The independent Republic of Mexico was established in 1821
Latin Americans that were descendents of Europeans were second-class citizens known as
Who led a successful slave revolt against the French in Haiti, eventually leading to Haiti's independence in 1804?
Who declared Brazil's independence from Portugal, based on advice given to him by his father?
People of African and European descent were known as
People of Native American and European descent were known as
Which Mexican priest began the call for Mexican independence?
Father Miguel Hidalgo
What was the spark that ignited widespread rebellion in Latin America?
Napoleon's successful ouster of the Spanish king in 1808
Which of the following events was NOT part of Simon Bolívar's revolutionary campaigns in Latin America?
crossing the Andes from Argentina to invade Chile
The price of the Model-T Ford decreased from $850 in 1909 to $290 in 1924 due to the increased efficiency of
the assembly line
Because of __________, all products no longer had to be made individually by hand
Which of the following was NOT a result of the formation of cartels?
Increased competition helped lead to lower prices
In order to raise the capital necessary to help companies grow, they
sell shares of stock
A machine that generates energy is known as a
Effects of industrialization included which of the following?
Businesses formed trusts mainly to
increase profits by eliminating competition
"Shortly before mid-day I placed the single earphone to my ear and started listening...I heard, faintly but distinctly, pip-pip-pip...I now felt for the first time absolutely certain that the day would come when mankind would be able to send messages without wires not only across the Atlantic, but between the farthermost ends of the earth."
Which innovator most likely stated the above quote while in Newfoundland in 1901 in order to receive the first overseas radio transmission from his assistant in England?
Leaders of big business such as Alfred Krupp and John D. Rockefeller were referred to as "captains of industry" by their admirers and __________ by their detractors
New innovations, such as the __________, helped spark industrial growth throughout Europe and parts of Canada, Australia, and the United States in the late 1800's
The French hoped to recover the border provinces of __________, lost in the Franco-Prussian War
Alsace and Lorraine
Who said, "I shall not live to see the Great War, but you will see it, and it will start in the east"?
Otto von Bismark
What term describes the final set of demands issued by Austria to Serbia after the Archduke's assassination?
What phrase best describes the term entente?
a non-binding agreement to follow common policies
If a nation were to mobilize for war, what would it be doing?
preparing military forces
Why did Serbian nationalists plot the assassination of the Archduke of Austria-Hungary?
They were protesting Austrian rule over Bosnia
The Schlieffen Plan was developed as a plan of attack against
What is another name for the alliance between France, Britain, and Russia?
The Triple Entente
How countries performed economically, the size of their militaries, and how they were viewed around the world all factored into viewing a nation's
Why did the British declare war on Germany in 1914?
to protect Belgium
On the Western Front, where were many battles fought?
__________ was sent to the Middle East to support the Arab revolt
Colonel T. E. Lawrence is also known by what name?
Lawrence of Arabia
What group of people was deported and killed by the Turks?
World War I was different from earlier wars because it was the first war to make use of
modern technology and machinery
The __________ is a vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean
Which statement best describes the use of convoys in World War I?
Merchant ships were protected by warships against U-boat attack
U-boat is another word for
Of the great powers, which nation was the least industrialized?
At first, aircraft were ______ simply to observe enemy troop movements
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