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Arts and Humanities
THE COLD WAR
Terms in this set (164)
Germany surrendered in WWII on
8 May 1945
President Roosevelt died
Roosevelt was replaced by
The Potsdam conference took place
The Yalta conference took place
Cominform was set up in
Marshall aid started in
Greek communists revolted
The Warsaw pact was formed
N.A.T.O. was founded
The GDR was founded
The FDR was founded
The Berlin Blockade ended
11 May 1949
The Berlin Blockade began
The Three Western Zones of Germany were united
Khrushchev sent the first letter to Kennedy
26th October 1962
Khrushchev sent the second letter to Kennedy
27th October 1962
Kennedy blockaded Cuba
24th October 1962
Nuclear missile bases were discovered on Cuba
14th October 1962
The Bay of Pigs Invasion started
17th April 1961
Kennedy broke off all diplomatic relations with Cuba
The CIA was founded by the National Security Act
Stalin ruled the USSR
1922 - 1952
Khrushchev ruled the USSR
1953 - 1964
Kennedy was president
1961 - 1963
Eisenhower was president
1953 - 1960
Truman was president
1945 - 1953
Castro ruled Cuba
1959 - 2008
1953 - 1959
Wealthy people invest money into industries, employ workers and keep profits. There is a democratic system with political parties
Classless society, land and industry owned by the state and profits used for good of all people. One political party, no elections.
British Prime Minister from 1941 to 45 and again 1951-55.
Franklin D Roosevelt
President of USA 1933-1945
Leader of the Soviet Union (USSR) 1922-53
Who attended the Yalta Conference, February 1945?
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin
What was decided at the Yalta Conference?
Germany would be split into 4 zones of occupation, USA, Russia, France and England equal section, Berlin also split into 4. Once Germany was defeated, the USSR would join the war against japan, United nations formed to replace the league of nations. East European countries liberated from Nazi occ., free democratic elections would be held. Stalin allowed a 'sphere of influence' in eastern Europe composed of satellite states.
What happened between February and July 1945 that increased tensions between US&England and the USSR?
Poland: The pro soviet Lublin poles had gained full control. USA successfully tested the Atomic Bomb (July 1945 pre-17th July) but didn't tell USSR. Truman became president, more anticommunist than Roosevelt. Attlee became Prime Minister of England, less opinionated than Truman & Stalin. All Eastern European countries liberated from Nazi occupation, but were under soviet occupation instead and no democratic elections occurred.
What was decided at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945?
Germany divided as agreed at Yalta. Allies to receive reparations. Polands eastern border extended west to rivers Oder and Neisse. The Nazi Party banned and leaders to be tried as war criminals.
What were the major disagreements at Potsdam?
Soviet Union wanted to impose huge reparations, Truman prevented this. Soviet union wanted to share in the occupation of Japan once defeated, Truman refused. Britain & USA wanted bigger say in Eastern Europe, did not accept that Stalin had the right to set up pro-Soviet govs in countries. Stalin said it had been agreed at Yalta.
When did the Soviet Union successfully test an atomic bomb?
August 29th 1949.
When was the iron curtain speech made?
Made by Churchill at Fulton, Missouri, on 5th March 1946. Increased tensions
Why did the USSR seek to dominate Eastern Europe?
According to Stalin, the Soviet Union did this as a defensive measure to create a buffer zone between them and Germany (As germany had invaded twice in the last 30 years) an establishment of communist governments and satellite states would make it more difficult. However the West, particularly USA, thought it was taking the first steps towards world domination & that Western life was under threat.
What happened to the Baltic States at the end of the war?
Baltic states (made up of latvia, lithuania, and estonia plus eastern poland) formally annexed to the USSR so the USSR in effect extended its borders by 500km west. It had occupied Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia during the war with Finland from 1930-40 & it had occupied eastern poland under the Nazi Soviet pact of 1939 even though Germans occupied from 1941-45
What happened to Czechoslovakia at the end of the war?
Initially Coalition gov ruled, from 1946 Communists were largest party in coalition. 1948 communists used army to seize control, many non communists arrested and the non communist foreign secretary Jan Masaryk, was murdered. Rigged elections held, communists won by landslide. Other parties banned.
What happened to East Germany?
In 1949 it became a separate communist state called the German Democratic Republic
What happened to Romania at the end of the War?
Post nazi expulsion, coalition gov dominated by communists. feb 1945, soviets forced the king to appoint a communist prime minister. By mid 1945 communists were in control. In 1947 monarchy was abolished.
What happened to Yugoslavia at the end of the war?
the Communist resistance fought against Germans & in 1945 the leader Marshal Tito was elected president. Relations deteriorated between Tito & Stalin as it became clear Tito would not follow orders from Moscow. Yugoslavia was expelled from Cominform and economic sanctions (impositions placed on a state in order to coerce it) against them applied for. Tito countered by taking aid from the west
What happened to Greece at the end of the war?
Communists not successful. Civil war fought and non communists supported by Britain and USA. Stalin kept promise to not aid greek communists who were finally defeated in 1949.
What was agreed at Yalta 1945?
1. Split Germany into 4 zones of occupation
2. Nazi war criminals to trial
3. War against Japan - revenge for attack on Pearl Harbour
4. Europe - 'soviet sphere of influence' for Stalin
What was going on behind the scenes at Yalta 1945?
1. Churchill feared rapid spread of communism
2. Roosevelt suspicious of Churchill's aims
3. Stalin feared that Churchill an Roosevelt would intervene in his plan to turn countries communist
4. Churchill feared Roosevelt was too easy on Stalin
Explain why it was difficult to reach agreement at the Potsdam Conference. (6 mark) - 1st para
P. Soviet policy in Europe was a main disagreement between the superpowers
E. Stalin = wanted pro-Soviet governments in Europe, by expand his territory and so he could enforce a communist government in each country- aim
Truman = feared Soviet invasion, as it would result in rapid spread of communism, therefore took the policy of containment, to stop communism spreading so it couldn't reach America and take over the democratic government
E. This means these contrasting views conflicted with each other, because they were completely unnegociable, as Truman was very anti-communist and Stalin was very pro-communist
What decisions about Germany were taken at Yalta and Potsdam?
1. 4 zones of occupation
2. Reparations - Russia allowed to take
Explain why it was difficult to reach agreement at the Potsdam Conference. (6 mark) - 2nd para
P. Reparations was another disagreement between the Big Three
E. Stalin - wanted compensation from Germany, felt strongly than Germany should pay as it was their fault that the terrible war had to be fought and caused loss of so many people but also land
Truman - Not want to repeat mistake of TofV - all the paying back of Germany aroused more hatred and anger of the Germans resulting in WW2. These reparations will damage international relations severely
E. This again meant the leaders were so firm in their views, that they could not find any way to negotiate and come somewhere in the middle. None of them wanted to change or negotiate, not only due to their conflicting political ideologies but here due to their poor experiences from the war or the treaty.
Explain why the wartime allies disagreed about Poland in 1945? (6mark) - 1st para
P. The main reason why the war time allies disagreed about Poland was due to the communist ideology.
E. In this ideology, there was no voting as part of the procedure to choose which candidate becomes dictator, and the Polish public would have no right to choose the way they want to live and the leader they want to rule. They would have no freedom and therefore no true happiness and state of mind.
E. Therefore, the allies were worried about these people, and how they would make the transition from being in a republic country to a communist state.
Explain why the wartime allies disagreed about Poland in 1945? (6mark) - 2nd para
P. Truman and Atlee were both anti-communist and didn't want Poland to be ruled by the Soviet Union mainly due to fear of communism (the Red Scare).
E. Communism was an ideology completely against the the democratic system of government Britain and America were used to. They were frightened by the ideology, as it meant that property and wealth was shared equally between everyone, property was state-owned and it was all ruled by one person - dictator.
E. They were worried as every country was becoming communist (including Poland), communism would become stronger and spread across the world including America. This is why America took on the policy of containment, to stop communism spreading from the first place, at its beginning, Europe. This is why they disagreed.
How did the Soviets expand? (4 mark)
1. Lies - Stalin claimed to help countries rather than invade.
2. Army - big and large army, to keep Soviets strong when overthrowing countries and threatening people.
3. Propaganda - indoctrinate people's minds to make them believe Stalin was a good leader
4. Secret Police - Stalin had control over everyone, and could assassinate anyone at any time, anyone who came in his way.
Why did the tensions between the Allies turn into a Cold War? (6 mark) - 2nd para
P. Stalin's actions and aims also played a role in turning tension into Cold War
• Stalin aimed to bring communism to as many countries as possible + achieved to spread communism in East Europe
• Big role - because - Churchill + Truman hated communism, would be horrified at finding news of Stalin's expansion of his dictatorship
• This kept on building and adding more tension between the leaders, as Attlee and Truman were completely anti-communist, and Stalin was therefore challenging their ideology and forever causing misery to them
The most important cause of the Cold War was the suspicion an rivalry between Truman and Stalin. Do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. - list factors
1. Personality differences
2. Ideological Differences
3. Provocative actions of the USA and USSR
The most important cause of the Cold War was the suspicion an rivalry between Truman and Stalin. Do you agree with this statement? - para 1
P. Personality differences- very imp, influences views and behaviour
E. Churchill - unwilling to accept communism, Roosevelt - more tolerant with Stalin and communism
Roosevelt replaced with Truman, Truman personality differed from Roosevelt to great extent, more anti-communist and hatred and arrogance shown
Stalin - claimed to have paranoia - tendency to think no-one liked him and everyone against him, reason to understand his vast communist expansion in Europe,
E. Consequently, inner personalities very important, especially Stalin's case
The most important cause of the Cold War was the suspicion an rivalry between Truman and Stalin. Do you agree with this statement? - para 2
P. ideological differences present between Am and SU
E. America- democracy, capitalist country, free elections, property owned by individuals
Russia - dictatorship, communist country, property state-owned
Capitalism and communism were imp matters, America feared communism greatly, aimed to contain it, so it could not spread and reach America and ruin the lifestyle of Americans. SU hated capitalism on other hand, wanted communism to take over world
E. Differences did not allow cooperation between the 2 countries at all
The most important cause of the Cold War was the suspicion an rivalry between Truman and Stalin. Do you agree with this statement? - para 3
P. another crucial part - provocative actions of USA and USSR
E. Stalin - took over Europe so quickly and greedily, leading USA to become suspicious of Stalin's aims
Truman- USA introduces Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, which undoubtedly build up rivalry between Stalin and Truman as they both have divided sections of Germany, and America and Russia are competing between communism and capitalism in Europe.
* can talk about Berlin Blockade here as part of Stalin's provocative actions, if you get the question:
The Berlin Blockade was most to blame for the Cold War tension
as you have to therefore include it
The most important cause of the Cold War was the suspicion an rivalry between Truman and Stalin. Do you agree with this statement? - para 4 conclusion
I do not agree with statement:
I believe differences in personalities are the most important cause of CW
Because their actions reflected in personalities, and so didn't have any tolerance and patience to cooperate and avoid war
If both countries had put their full effort in keeping up a good relationship with each other, it could have been possible to avoid any sort of war at all. - peaceful co-existence if had pure and good hearts, and co-operated for peace regardless of ideologies or anything else.
'The USA was successful in containing communism in Europe up to 1949'. How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer (10 mark)
What was agreed at Yalta?
1. Free elections in countries previously under Nazi rule
2. Germany and Berlin to be divided into 4 zones, UK, USA, France and USSR
3. Part of Poland would be given back to USSR
4. UN set up
5. USSR would help USA fight against Japan
What was agreed at Potsdam?
1. Germany and Berlin split into 4 zones
2. Germany disarmed
3. Nazi party abolished and war criminals tried
4. Germany had to pay huge reparations
What was NOT agreed at Potsdam?
1. Poland's borders
2. Peace treaty with Germany
3. Free elections in Eastern Europe
May 1945 (just before Potsdam)
USA tests first atomic bomb
USA drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, ending WW2
Churchill declares that an 'Iron Curtain' has descended over Eastern Europe in a message to Truman
Truman Doctrine, Marshall Aid, and Cominform
What was the Truman Doctrine?
USA's attempt to contain communism. It offered aid to any European country threatened by communism
What was Marshall Aid?
USA's promotion of capitalism. They offered financial help to all European countries to help them rebuild after WW2
What was Cominform?
USSR's response to Marshall Aid and the Truman Doctrine which financially united communist Eastern European countries
Berlin Blockade and NATO formed as a result
What was the Berlin Blockade?
Stalin blocked off all roads into Western Berlin and USA began airlifting supplies. It lasted less than a year
Why did Stalin blockade West Berlin?
1. USA and UK joined their zones to create Bizonia
2. They created a new currency which made it prosper
3. People from East Germany were moving to West Berlin
4. ALL THIS THREATENED STALIN
What was the Warsaw Pact?
Communist equivalent to NATO
Castro sets up a communist government in Cuba after the Cuban Revolution
What was the U2 incident?
A US U2 spy plane shot down over USSR. Khrushchev demands a formal apology from USA
Berlin Wall built
Bay of Pigs incident
What was the Bay of Pigs incident?
CIA trained Cuban exiles were sent to Cuba to try and overthrow Castro. Many were captured or killed because they underestimated how much support Castro had
Cuban Missile Crisis
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
USA took pictures which showed USSR missiles in Cuba. JFK ordered a naval blockade. Khrushchev refused to remove his missiles unless JFK removed his from Turkey. JFK secretly removed his missiles from Turkey and Khrushchev publicly removed his from Cuba
USA and USSR make a Hotline to make communication easier and agree on a partial nuclear test ban treaty (underground tests were still permitted)
At Yalta, leaders disagreed over...
...whether to move Polish borders west
Germany surrendered in WW2 in...
...8 May 1945
Roosevelt was replaced by...
Before 1939, the USA had a foreign policy of...
...isolationism (not getting involved in major disputes)
The Potsdam conference took place...
Between Yalta and Potsdam, Britain and the USA both...
Truman was much more ___ than Roosevelt
By Potsdam, Germany was defeated but...
...the USSR didn't withdraw from Eastern Europe
Potsdam was tense because...
...Truman announced the atomic bomb
At Potsdam, leaders agreed...
...on Polish borders and war crimes trials for Nazi leaders
At Potsdam, Truman and Stalin disagreed over...
...wether Poland should be communist and how much reparation money Germany should pay
At Potsdam, Truman denied Stalin...
...a naval base in the Mediterranean
Stalin thought Germany should pay large reparations...
...so it wouldn't be a military threat
Truman was worried reparations...
...would make Germany unstable
The 'iron curtain'...
...was a metaphor for the divide between East and West Europe
The USSR spread communism west by...
...killing opponents, intimidating voters or rigging balots
Stoping another force from spreading without pushing it back
How many states received Marshall aid?
Marshall aid had limited success because...
...Stalin banned Cominform members from accepting it
Marshal aid aimed to...
...build export markets and contain communism
Marshal aid was a policy whereby...
...America supported struggling European states
The Truman Doctrine was the belief...
...that the USA should contain communism at all costs
...a union of Communist states set up by Stalin
Cominform was set up in...
...1947, in response to Marshal Aid
...was the only Communist state not in Cominform
Comecon was a 1949 union...
...to co-ordinate the economies of Eastern Europe
A right-wing dictatorial system of government
How many Russians died in WWII?
In the USA, property and industry...
...were privately owned and run
The USA was run by...
...an elected congress
The USA was very rich but...
...there were extremes of rich and poor
The USSR was run by...
...the unelected Communist Party
In the USSR, individual freedom was considered...
...less important than the good of society as a whole
In the USSR, wealth was more uniform but...
...standards of living were generally low
The USSR wanted a 'buffer zone' in Europe because...
...it had suffered greatly in WWII and was afraid of invasion
The Yalta Conference was held...
...in February 1945
What was decided about Germany at Yalta?
Germany would be split into four zones of occupation
What was decided about Berlin at Yalta?
Berlin would be sub-divided into four zones
What was decided about Eastern Europe at Yalta?
Liberated countries would have free and fair elections
At Yalta, the USSR agreed to invade Japan...
...in exchange for territory there
How did the USSR respond to NATO?
It formed the Warsaw pact in 1955
NATO was founded in...
The German Democratic Republic (GDR)
When was the GDR founded?
The FDR was founded in...
In total, the Berlin airlift transported...
...2.3 million tons of supplies
The Berlin Blockade ended...
...on 11 May 1949
The USA responded to the Berlin Blockade...
...by airdropping supplies for ten months
Stalin blockaded Berlin by...
...setting up rail and road blocks with Soviet soldiers
The Berlin blockade began...
...in June 1948
Stalin blockaded Berlin to destroy...
...the pocket of capitalism inside the iron curtain
Stalin blockaded Berlin to stop...
...the USA rebuilding West Germany
West Germany's currency was called...
...the Deutsche Mark
The three western zones of Germany united...
Briefly explain the key features of the Teheran Conference, 1943.
1. America and Britain would open a second front in France against the Germans.
2. The Soviet Union should have a 'sphere of influence' in Eastern Europe after WW2.
Briefly explain the main decisions made about Germany at the Yalta Conference in February 1945.
1. Agreed to divide Germany into three zones of occupation administered by the Big Three (Britain, USA and USSR).
2. Agreed to move the borders of Germany, giving territory east of the rivers Oder-Neisse to Poland + Stalin agreed to free elections.
Briefly explain what the Allies decided about Germany at the Potsdam Conference (1945).
1. They confirmed the Yalta agreement to divide Germany into 4 zones.
2. They would extract reparations (payment for war damages) from Germany.
Why did the gulf between the Allies widen in 1943-46?
1. Soviets wanted the opening of a second front to happen immediately, while the Americans wanted to delay the Normandy landings to 1944.
2. The role of personalities. Both Stalin and Truman were willing to use intimidation.
3. Ideological differences between communism and capitalism, which had been buried during the common fight against Nazi Germany.
Briefly describe the key features of the USA's growing involvement in Europe during 1947.
1. The Truman Doctrine, which was in response to the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe.
2. The Marshall Plan, which provided economic aid to the countries of Western Europe. $13 billion of aid was given.
Briefly describe the key features of the Truman Doctrine.
1. It was a challenge to communism in response to the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe. Containment.
2. America would give military aid to any country threatened by communism by supplying it with weapons.
Briefly describe the key features of the Marshall Plan.
1. The provision of economic aid to rebuild the shattered countries of Europe. $17 billion.
2. It was a rejection of communism because countries signing up for the Marshall Plan had to agree to trade with the USA.
Briefly explain key features of Cominform (1947) and Comecon (1949).
1. Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) was to ensure that satellite states remained loyal to the Soviet Union and stayed under their political direction.
2. Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) was its aim to control the economies of eastern Europe and make them serve the interests of the Soviet Union, such as providing raw materials for Russian factories.
Explain why Stalin blockaded Berlin in 1948.
1. Berlin was a symbol of power over Europe and a valuable prize because it had been the heart of Nazi Germany. Stalin resented Western forces in West Berlin.
2. The problem of Berlin grew when the Western powers decided in 1948 to unite their zones of occupation into Trizonia. This went against the war time agreements made three years earlier. It was effectively a declaration of the Cold War and Stalin felt increasingly defensive.
3. Confirmation that the US was attempting to build up West Berlin as a 'capitalist island in a communist sea' came when a separate and stronger currency, the Deutschmark, was introduced into Trizonia.
Briefly explain the key features of the Berlin Blockade 1948-49.
1. A key feature of the Berlin Blockade was that it was a victory for the West.
2. Another key feature of the Berlin Blockade is that it led to the permanent separation of Germany into the German Democratic Republic (East) and the Federal Republic of Germany (West), which deepened the division between the superpowers.
Briefly explain the key features of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
1. A key feature of NATO was that it was a military alliance of Western Powers set up in 1949 in response to the Berlin Blockade.
2. A further key feature of NATO was its effect of deepening the division between the Superpowers and eventually causing the Soviets to establish their own military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.
Explain why relations between the Soviet Union and the USA changed in the years 1943-49.
1.One reason for the change was the Czech coup in 1947. The brutal seizure of power was confirmation that Stalin had established an 'iron curtain' in which all traces of democratic government and free enterprise were extinguished.
2. More important than the Czech coup was the Marshall Plan because it affected the whole of Western Europe. This was a financial package worth $17 billion given by the USA in 1947 to help the European economies recover from the devastation of World War Two.
3. More important than either the Czech Coup or the Marshall Plan was the 1948-9 Berlin Blockade, which could have sparked off World War Three. The stakes were very high for both sides because Berlin was the key city in Europe and had great symbolic value.
Briefly explain the key features of the beginnings of the arms race in the years 1945-49.
1. A key feature of the arms race was fear of each other's capabilities. In 1945 the USA exploded its first atom bomb, making the Russians fearful of American power.
2. Another key feature of the arms race was the fact that it made the stakes so high that it prevented a war in Europe from occurring.
Briefly explain the key features of the nuclear arms race in the years 1952-61.
1. A key feature of the nuclear arms race was the constant search to achieve superiority by introducing new technology.
2. Another key feature was the policy of deterrence as both sides built up huge nuclear arsenals to threaten each other. MAD.
Explain why relations between the USA and USSR worsened in the years 1949-55
1. The Cold War spread to Asia in the Chinese Revolution, which was soon followed by the Korean War in 1950.
2. The creation of military alliances. In response to the Berlin Blockade a military alliance of Western Powers, NATO, was established in 1949 to challenge the Red Army, prompting the creation of a Communist military alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.
3. It was the nuclear arms race that preoccupied the leaders on both sides and made the military alliances so dangerous. In 1949 the Russians exploded an A-bomb, thereby ending American complacency about its nuclear monopoly.
Briefly explain the key features of the Warsaw Pact, 1955
1. A key feature of the Warsaw Pact was that it was a military alliance of the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellites to counter the threat of NATO.
2. Another key feature was the extent of Soviet control. The Supreme Commander was Russian and membership of the Pact, unlike NATO, was compulsory.
Briefly explain the key features of Soviet rule over Hungary in the years 1945-55.
1. A key feature of Soviet rule is that it was a dictatorship. The Red Army established a permanent garrison to impose its will and a secret police was introduced to root out opponents. Fixed elections.
2. Another key feature was economic control according to communist principles, such as collectivization of agriculture.
Briefly explain the key features of the events of the Hungarian Uprising (1956).
1. It was prompted by the Soviets themselves when Khrushchev came to power and made a secret speech in 1956 denouncing Stalin's oppression and promising de-Stalinisation in the Soviet satellites of Eastern Europe.
2. Another key feature was that Khrushchev was not willing to accept reform of communism and he crushed the uprising.
Explain why there was an uprising in Hungary in 1956.
1. It was encouraged by the Americans, such as the Secretary of State, Dulles, who promised to 'roll back' the Iron Curtain and said 'you can count on us'. Radio Free Europe.
2. Khrushchev's policy of de-Stalinisation. He made a speech in 1956 denouncing Stalin's oppressive government and promising to allow 'different roads to socialism' in the satellite states of Eastern Europe.
3. The most important reason for the uprising in the first place was resentment of Soviet rule, which had been building up ever since Hungary was occupied by the Red Army in 1945.
Explain why Khrushchev invaded Hungary in 1956.
1. One reason Khrushchev invaded Hungary was because he knew the Red Army, numbering millions of soldiers, had overwhelming power.
2. He was very concerned that the reform programme of Nagy, the new Hungarian prime minister, was a challenge to communist principles.
3. The most important aspect of Nagy's policies that triggered Khrushchev into taking action was the decision for Hungary to quit the Warsaw Pact. Precedent.
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