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Ch. 1, 2, 3

Intro, Chemical level of organization, Cellular level of organization
STUDY
PLAY
a temperature receptor in the skin
An example of a sensor in a negative feedback loop that controls body temperature is __________
Negative
__________ feedback control reduces variations away from a desired physiological state.
prone
A patient placed face down is in the __________ position.
left upper
The spleen is located in the __________ quadrant.
lateral
The lungs are __________ to the heart.
All of these organs are in the thoracic cavity
Which of these organs is in the thoracic cavity?
esophagus
thymus
trachea
All of these organs are in the thoracic cavity
peritoneum
The membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the __________.
kidney
Which of these organs is retroperitoneal in location?
urinary bladder
kidney
large intestine
stomach
heart
Visceral pericardium covers the __________
Extrinsic
________ regulation results from the activities of the nervous or endocrine system.
Intrinsic
________ regulation occurs when the activities of organs are regulated locally.
receptor,control center,effector
Homeostatic regulation usually involves a(n) ________ that detects a particular stimulus, and a(n) ________ that responds to the stimulus by communicating with a(n) ________ whose activity has an effect on the same stimulus.
negative feedback
When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of
directs long-term responses to change.
In general, the nervous system does each of the following, except
directs very specific responses.
helps to maintain homeostasis.
responds rapidly to change.
directs long-term responses to change.
responds rapidly to change and directs very specific responses.
Terminologia Anatomica
The ________ serves as a worldwide official standard of anatomical vocabulary.
cytology.
The analysis of the internal structure of individual cells is called
histology
The study of tissues with a microscope is called __________
surface
The study of the general form and superficial markings of an organism is called ________ anatomy
regional
The study of the superficial and internal features in a specific area of the body is called ________ anatomy.
pathological
Anatomical features that change during illness are studied in ________ anatomy.
embryology
The study of the first two months of development is termed
systemic physiology
The study of the function of specific organ systems is called
systemic physiology
Cardiovascular physiology is an example of
MRI
An imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce views inside the body is the
downward
While standing erect, the direction of caudal is
right upper
The liver is primarily located in the ________ quadrant.
prone
A person lying face down is in the ________ position.
both pericardial cavity and pleural cavities.
The thoracic cavity contains the

pelvic cavity.
coelom.
pericardial cavity.
pleural cavities.
both pericardial cavity and pleural cavities.
heart
A midsagittal section would pass through the
pelvic quadrant.
The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all of the following except
right upper quadrant (RUQ).
right lower quadrant (RLQ).
left lower quadrant (LLQ).
left upper quadrant (LUQ).
pelvic quadrant.
upper
Which of the following is not considered an abdominopelvic region?
transverse
Which plane divides the body into superior and inferior parts?
anterior
An anatomical term that means the same as ventral:
medial
The heart is ________ to the lungs.
positive
This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal
effector
A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed a(n)
hypothalamus.
The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the
temperature sensors on the skin that detect a stimulus
An example of a receptor in a negative feedback loop controlling body temperature would be
respiratory
Which organ system removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?
digestive
Lungs are to the respiratory system as the liver is to the ________ system.
endocrine
The pituitary gland and thyroid gland are organs of the ________ system.
urinary
The kidneys and ureters are organs of the ________ system.
lymphatic
Which organ system includes the spleen and the tonsils?
cardiovascular
Which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic wastes, gases, and defense cells?
skeletal
Which organ system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation?
organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular
Which of the following is arranged in correct order from the most COMPLEX to the SIMPLEST?
cellular, tissue, molecular, system, organ, organism
molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular
organ, organism, molecular, cellular, tissue, system
tissue, cellular, molecular, organ, system, organism
digestive
The salivary glands and the stomach are organs of the _________ system.
produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of the endocrine system?
produces a more rapid response than the nervous system
important homeostatic system
produces effects that last for days or longer
produces an effect that involves several organs or tissues at the same time
releases chemical messengers called hormones
sagittal
Which plane divides the body into right and left parts?
right lower; left lower
The urinary bladder is found in the ________ quadrant and the ________ quadrant.
parasagittal
A cut parallel to the midsagittal plane would produce a(n) ________ section.
cheek
The common term for the buccal region is the ________
thoracic cavity; abdominopelvic cavity
The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ________ from the ________
pericardial sac
Identify a structure located within the mediastinum.
right lung
The right pleural cavity contains the
on the heart itself
Visceral pericardium is located
separates the pleural cavities and contains the pericardial cavity
The mediastinum
thoracic and abdominopelvic
The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the
Atoms
__________ are the smallest stable units of ordinary matter
nuclei
Radioactive atoms have unstable __________
protons
The "atomic number" of an atom is determined by the number of ________ it has.
neutrons in the nucleus
Isotopes of an element differ in the number of
protons + neutrons.
The mass number represents the number of
2
The innermost electron shell in an atom holds up to ________ electrons.
protons + neutrons + electrons
The "atomic weight" of an atom reflects the average number of
hydrogen
Which element commonly has only a proton as its nucleus?
silicon, fluorine, tin
Indicate which of these lists contains only trace elements.
selenium, hydrogen, calcium
boron, oxygen, carbon
sulfur, chlorine, oxygen
silicon, fluorine, tin
cobalt, calcium, sodium
protons and neutrons
The nucleus of an atom consists of
10-9 meter.
A nanometer is
has the same number of atoms
One mole of any element
element
A(n) ________ is a pure substance composed of atoms.
electron cloud
Electrons whirl around the center of the atom at high speed, forming a(n) ________
isotopes
Atoms of the same element whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons, are called ________
number of electrons in the outermost electron shell
The chemical properties of an atom are determined by the __________.
positively charged cation
If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a __________
covalent
The strongest bond between two atoms is the __________ bond.
hydrogen
The weakest bond between two atoms is the ________ bond.
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
Ionic bonds are formed when
triple covalent bond.
In a molecule of nitrogen, three pairs of electrons are shared by two nitrogen atoms. The type of bond that is formed is an example of a(n)
polar covalent
If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, a(n) ________ occurs.
inert gases
Elements that have atoms with full outer shells of electrons
covalent bonds
When atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons, they form
oxygen
By weight, which element is the most plentiful in the human body?
carbon
By weight, which element is the second most abundant in the human body?
an ionic bond is formed
When electrons are transferred from one atom to another, and the two atoms unite as a result of the opposite charges,
+2
Magnesium atoms have two electrons in the outermost shell. As a result, you would expect magnesium to form ions with a charge of
endergonic
Chemical reactions that absorb energy are said to be _________.
a calcium ion that has lost two electrons
In chemical notation, the symbol Ca2+ means ________
water, causing decomposition
In hydrolysis reactions, compounds react with
substrate; active
Before an enzyme can work, a __________ molecule must bind at the __________ site.
Enzymes
________ accelerate chemical reactions that occur in the human body.
A pH of 4 is greater.
Which has the greater concentration of hydrogen ions, a substance with a pH of 5 or a substance with a pH of 4?
C
Which element do organic compounds always contain?
Carbon dioxide
__________ is an example of an inorganic substance.
metabolites
Compounds that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside the body are called
cellular metabolism
Oxygen is required in biological systems for
water
Which compound is essential for all life?
All of the above statements about water are true.
Which of the following statements about water is true?
Water is a good solvent.
Water comprises the largest portion of total body weight.
Water is composed of polar molecules.
All of the above statements about water are true.
has a relatively low heat capacity
Which of the following statements about water is not correct?
can dissolve many substances
contains hydrogen bonds
is responsible for much of the mass of the human body
has a relatively low heat capacity
is composed of polar molecules
thermal inertia
Which property of water helps keep body temperature stabilized?
acidic
A solution containing more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions is __________.
acidic
If a solution has a pH that is lower than 7, the solution is __________.
base; acid
A(n) ________ removes hydrogen ions and a(n) ________ releases hydrogen ions.
strong acid
When placed in water, an inorganic compound dissociates 99 percent, forming hydrogen ions and anions. This compound would be
are the body's most readily available source of energy.
Carbohydrate molecules
glucose
The most important metabolic fuel molecule in the body is
glycogen
A polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose is
organic molecules
Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are classified as
water and carbon dioxide
An example of an inorganic substance is
are generally many times sweeter than sucrose
Artificial sweeteners
triglycerides
Most of the lipid in the human body is in the form of __________
ATP
The most important high-energy compound found in the human body is
cardiovascular
The organ system responsible for internal transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide is the
catalyze reactions
The primary function of enzymes in the extracellular fluid is to
ionic bond
Sodium chloride is an example of:
cytoplasm has a composition different from the extracellular fluid and the differences must be maintained
Isolating the cytoplasm from the surrounding fluid environment by the cell membrane is important because
The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body
Metabolism refers to
stem cells
Relatively unspecialized, undifferentiated cells whose only function is the production of daughter cells
structural support
The cell membrane has which of the following functions
enzymes
The chemical reactions in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called
cytosol and organelles
The cytoplasm includes two major constituents, which are
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
The four major classes of organic compounds are
Abdominal cavity
The gallbladder lies in the
tissue
An organization of many similar cells that are specialized to perform a certain function is called a(n):
lower
When the chemical reaction occurs with aid of a catalyst, the required activation energy will be
endoplasmic reticulum
Membranous organelles include
microtubules
The primary components of the cytoskeleton, giving the cells strength, rigidity, and anchoring organelles are the
ribosomes
Which of the following are not membranous organelles?
a process in which vesicles formed inside the cell fuse with the cell membrane and discharge their contents outside the cell
Exocytosis is
7.35 - 7.45
Normal body pH is should remain in a range of:
Golgi apparatus
Preparation of protein molecules for cellular exportation is the function of which of the following organelles?
the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
The organelle responsible for a variety of functions centering around the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates is
the cell
The smallest living unit within the human body is
cytosol
The watery component of the cytoplasm is called