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133 terms

mgmt 3370

Asa and ruby both sell insurance. Asa is married and has three children and a new house. Ruby is single and has recently purchased a new Lexus. Acing to some industrial psychologists______.
On the basis of research evidence, the two basic need categories are____.
Extrinsic and intrinsic needs
According to Alderfers ERG theory, the lowest order need is _____.
Physiological needs
A concert pianist always wanted to play jazz when he got the opportunity to play with a group of New Orleans jazz musicians who were displaced after Hurricane Katrina. He was elated after the experience of playing with the talented jazz musicians. He experienced an ______ reward.
Paralympics for disabled athletes feel what kind of inequity?
How do employees try to restore equity when the perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
By rationalizing inputs or outcomes, changing the referent, simply quitting their jobs, reducing level of energy.

_____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated.
Distributive justice
The _____ states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards.
Expectancy theory
According to the expectancy theory, ____ affect the conscious choices that people make about their motivation.
Valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. VEI
To use the expectancy theory to motivate employees, managers can
systematically gather information to find out what employees want from their jobs
___ is the process of changing behavior by changing the consequences that follow behavior.
____ is a reinforcement strategy which weakens a behavior over time because the behavior has no consequences, positive or negative.
____ says that people will be motivated to the extent to which they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement.
Goal-setting theory
____ is the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals.
goal acceptance
For the goal setting theory to work, goals must ___.
Focus employees attention on critical aspects of their jobs, energize behavior, create a tension between current state and desired state, be truly accepted by workers.

Effective managers define ___ as the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
Which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as apposed to managers)?
Inspiring and motivating others
When Jack Welch went to work for GE, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company's structure and product lines. He envisioned a bloated, inefficient GE becoming an efficient, profitable organization over time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ___.
would be characterized as a leader
According to an article from CIO Magazine, "Leadership grows from courage and integrity." From this opening statement, you know the article will discuss leadership from the ___.
Trait theory viewpoint
Which of the following traits refers to the extent to which leaders are truthful with others?
Oftentimes when an individual is running for local political office, he or she promises to consider each issue, make decisions that are good for the entire community, and reduce taxes. When the individual assumes office, he or she is often unable to carry through on political promises, an inability which leads to a perceived problem with___.
Leaders who possess the trait of ___ are most decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence.
Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?
Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions.
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ___ and ___, are central to successful leadership.
initiating structure; consideration
Which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior?
Employee-centered leadership
Hot Topic, McLaughlin demonstrating ____.
Which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
Bloody jack would be viewed by GE's employees as having ___.
Strong position power
John Mack turned the money losing bank into profitable by "goading workers to move out of their comfort zones." and setting challenging goals for them. His high expectations for his employees indicates that Mack used an ____ leadership style.
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ means setting challenging goals, having high expectations of employees, and displaying confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort.
Achievement-oriented leadership
Hot Topic's McLaughlin uses the ____ style of management.
The normative decision theory ____.
helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making.
In many organizations, sales managers develop company wide sales forecasts by asking members of the sales force to decide how much growth they anticipate in their individual sales territories. Sales managers then take information supplied by their subordinates. In the normative decision model, this would be an example of a ___ decision making style.
Which of the following leadership theories uses a decision tree to determine the appropriate level of participation by subordinates in decision making?
Vroom-Yetton-Jago's normative decision model
Koresh used ___ to create the strong relationships between him and his followers who were willing to die for him.
Charismatic Leadership
____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers.
Charismatic leadership
Transformational leaders ____.
are able to make their followers feel they are vital
encourage followers to make sacrifices for the organization
help followers see how their jobs fit vision
get employees to see beyond own needs

Are accurately described by all of these
____ generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group.
Transformational leadership
The last step in the perceptual process is ___.
___ is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.
The steps in the perceptual process in order are___.
Attention, organization, interpretation, and retention.

___ is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that we dont know what is consistent with what we already know.
In the model of the communication process presented in the text, ___ occurs when a message is put into written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognized and understood by the receiver.
The ___ is the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information.
formal communication channel
Gore employees don't have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. As a result of doing away with traditional titles, the company encourages more ___ communication.
In the ___ type of grapevine communication network, numerous people simply tell a few of their friends.
cluster chain
In the ___ type of grapvine communication network, one highly connected individual shares information with many other managers and workers
Gossip chain
Kinesics and para language are two kinds of ___.
nonverbal communication
In nonverbal communication, ___ is the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking pattern of ones voice
In which of the following cases would written communication be preferable to oral communication?
when messages are very simple.
Which of the following statements about listening is true?
All of these statements are true
When a plant was closed due to a merger, managers at the plant (who were given the opportunity to move to other plants) should have engaged in ___ as employees described the forced changes in lifestyle.
Empathetic Listening
To be a better listener, you should __.
evaluate the message as you hear it.
After some ___ with the event planner, Rubylyn better understood what her job entailed and became a valued employee.
constructive feedback
The first thing that managers need to recognize when communicating feed back one-on-one to employees is that feedback can be ___.
Constructive or destructive
TWCC wanted to solicit ___ from the companies best customers.
Constructive feedback
Which of the following is NOT one of the organization-wide techniques that is regularly used for staying in touch with people throughout the organization. (i.e. hearing what others think and feel)?
surprise visits
The basic control process begins with___.
the establishment of clear standards of performance
These financial projections were ___ for the beverage company.
Companies may determine standards by ___.
benchmarking other companies
an often overlooked factor in determining the cost of control is___.
cybernetic feasibility
____ is the extent to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process.
cybernetic feasibility
which of the following is a method managers can use to achieve control in their organizations?
Bureaucratic, self-control, concertive, normative

____ control is top-down control in which managers try to influence employees behavior by rewarding or punishing employees for compliance or noncompliance with organizational policies, rules, and procedures.
An organization that relies heavily on ___ controls is likely to be highly resistant to change and slow to respond to customers and competitors
___ control is associated with autonomous work groups
Which of the following is NOT one of the four perspectives measured in the balances scorecard appraoch to control
policies and procedures perspective
A provider of computer technical support that is using the balanced scorecard approach to control would look at ___.
percentage of employees with training in last year
customer defections
cash flow
percentage of computer owners that request support/5mo

All of these and more
___ controls should be used when it is necessary to standardize operating proceudures and establish limits.
The librarian in charge of the special collection feels that this new policy will adversely influence the use of the collection in research of the experiences of everyday people during the war. This is an example of the use of control creating ___..
One of the advantages the balanced scorecard has over traditional control processes that rely solely on financial measures its that it ___.
minimizes the chances of suboptimization
When implementing the financial perspective, managers would use ___.
financial ratios
When dealing with the customer area of the balanced scorecard, the article advised librarians to use customer surveys. Why might this be a poor strategy to use?
Customer surveys are typically misleading, skewed to positive feedback
Standards suggested to use with the ___ area of the balanced scorecard include how quickly and effectively a new service can be offered and how the training staff responds to its introduction
Internal business perspective
The three components of ____ are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort.
McClellend's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are needs for ____.
Power, achievement, and affiliation
According to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces ___.
____ are the rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
intrinsic rewards
According to ___, people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly.
equity theory
the two basic kinds of inequity are ___.
Underreward and overreward
In equity theory, after an ___ comparison in which they compare their outcomes to their inputs, employees then make an ___ comparison in which they compare their O/I ratios with the O/I ratio of a referent.
internal; external
In expectancy theory, ___ is the perceived relationship between effort and performance.
The two parts of reinforcement are____.
reinforcement contingencies and schedule of reinforcement
____ strengthen behavior (i.e., increase its frequency)
positive and negative reinforcement
A manager who wants to use reinforcement theory to motivate workers should first ___.
identify critical performance-related behavior
A ____ is a target, object, or result
Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ___.
make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
The CEOs of these troubled airline companies ___.
are more likely managers than leaders
which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
organziations need both leaders and managers
in terms of leadership behavior, the term ___ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?
concern for production
Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily ___., consideration impacts primarily on ___.
Job Performance; job satisfaction
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors are central to successful leadership is true?
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration
Which of the following is an example of situational theory of leadership
Fielder's contingency theory
In Fielder's contingency theory, the term ___ refers to the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers.
position power
In Fielder's contingency theory, the term ___ refers to the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members.
situational favorableness
According to ____. leaders need to make clear how followers can achieve organizational goals, take care of problems that prevent followers from achieving goals, and then find more and varied rewards to motivate followers who achieve those goals.
the path-goal theory
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations.
Directive leadership
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves being friendly and approachable to employees, showing concern for them and their welfare, treating them as equals, and creating a friendly climate
supportive leadership
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, ___ involves consulting employees for their suggestions and inputs before making decisions.
Participative leadership
____ is leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and proves direction for future planning and goal setting.
Visionary leadership
Two types of visionary leadership are____.
Charismatic leadership and transformational leadership
Research results consistently show ____.
transformational leadership is much more effective on average than transactional leadership.
Which of the following statements about the importance of communication is true?
All of these are true
Which of the following statements about perception and perceptual filters is true
people perceive according to personality-, psychology, and experience-based filters
____ is the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring, screening out, or not accepting inconsistent information.
Selective perception
According to attribution theory, ___ makes managers more likely to attribute to worker's problems or failures to internal rather than external causes.
the fundamental attribution error
According to attribution theory, we use two general reasons for attributions to explain peoples behavior. They are ___.
Internal and external attributions
In the model of the communication process presented in the text, ___ makes senders aware of possible miscommunications and enables them to continue communicating until the receiver understands the intended message.
Noise can occur when___.
The sender isnt sure what msg to communicate
the receiver doesnt have the time to understand msg
msg not decoded/encoded properly

any of these occur
The three formal communication channels in an organization are categorized as ____.
downward, horizontal, and upward
Coaching is ___.
a kind of one-on-one communication primarily used by managers to improve an employee's on the job performance or behavior
Managers generally like and use ___ but are less receptive to using ___
oral communication; written communication
Which of the following statements about hearing and listening are true?
hearing is the act of perceiving sounds, while listening is the act of making a conscious effort to hear.
Feedback is more likely to be destructive than constructive when it is ___.
____ is the withholding of information about organizational problems or issues by employees
organizational silence
___ is the regulatory process of establishing standards that will achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and then, if necessary, taking corrective action to restore performance to those standards.
___ are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory
_____ allows a trucking company not only to compare its safety performance with other companies but to also adopt those practices found to be superior
If items have not been sold after a month on display at the store, the items are removed from the store to either be sold at another location or returned to manufacturer. The chain of stores was able to set this standard through ___.
listening to customers
Control is a ___ process.
continuous, dynamic, and cybernetic
Three basic control methods are ___.
Concurrent control, feedback control, and feedforward control
Two workers killed. By gathering info on how the men died in order to prevent recurrence, valero used ___ control.
___ control is a method of gathering info about performance deficiencies as they occur
___ control is a method of gathering information about performance deficiencies before they occur.
____ costs are the costs associated with implementing or monitoring control.
The two types of objective controls managers use are ___.
Behavior and output
____ control regulates workers' actions and routines on the job, while ___ control measures the results of their efforts.
behavior; output
Which of the following statement about normative control is true?
normative control leads to an emphasis on very selective hiring
____ should be used when it is difficult to create good measures of worker behavior and output and when organizational cultures, values, and beliefs are strong.
Concertive control
The balanced scorecard approach to control ___.
forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of four areas
Quality is typically defined and measured in three ways. They are __.
excellence, value, and conformance to expectations
When a company emphasizes ___ as its quality goal, managers must simultaneously control excellence, price, durability, or other features of a product or service that customers strongly associate with it.