134 terms

History Final Winter 2011

Hernando Cortes
Declared original land for Spain in America (1500s) enemy of NA + Aztecs
Spanish explores searching for wealth in Americas (1500s)
New Spain
Land taken over by Spaniards, led by Cortes. Capital= Mexico City. Built over Native land/temples
mixed race of spanish and NA; intermarried but were oppressed
Juan ponce de Leon
Founded Florida for Spain
New Mexico
Spain's northern holdings in America. Trade between New Mexico + Santa Fe (early 1600s)
NA religious leader; punished by Spanish for witchcraft. rebelled strongly against Spanish
Joint Stock Companies
Privately owned colony invested in by English investors; who would profit from colony's return
John Smith
young adventurer craved fortune in South. Abandoned Jamestown after injury
Private Colony in Virginia. Founded by John Smith. Looking for gold. Diseases and hunger. 150ppl originally. by winter only 38ppl. lot of ppl die.
Natives near Jamestown. Helped to provide food for colonists at first. But after pop growth start fighting colonists.
Headright system
Anyone who payed for own/others journey to Virginia recieved 50 acres of land. Gave incentive for immigrants. lot of ppl come in response.
Indentured servants
Imported from England to work plantations. In exchange for passage into America. Had to work for 4-7 years.
Royal colony
Virginia became after they started trading w/ other countries besides England. Also NA leaders started fighting w/ settlers. England mad- Took control over the colony. Direct control under king.
Nathaniel Bacon
hated NAs. started a rebellion against Berkley/ NA in Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
Group of church members who wanted to reform church of England (Anglican) when England started to become Catholic. Decided to start a holy community in New England
John Winthrop
Northern passionate Massachusetts leader. model for christain charity. community/church oriented. City upon a hill (model of society)
Pilgrims; fled from England to escape prosecution. separate/spawned from Puritans
Plymouth Colony
founded by Pilgrims (1620). small group of families. 2nd permanent English colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
John Winthrop governor 12 yrs; Boston=capital. Plymouth colony incorporated within
Roger Williams
extreme separatist. Believed shouldn't steal land from NA. Fled Massachusetts. Created Rhode Island. Wanted Religious Freedom + Sep of church/state
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan leader. seperatist Didn't need church to intp. bible. Ppl can do it themselves. Puritans banished her.
Pequot War
(1637) NA tribe (Pequot) take stand against colonists in Connecticut. English formed alliance with other tribe (Narragansett). massacred by colonists.
Wampangoag leader; didn't obey puritan law. Rebelled against them
King Philip's War
(1675) started by Metacom. NA attk and burned Colonist settlements. NA eventually flee after attrition/loss of men and resources
William Penn
Quaker; established Quaker haven in America. Colony in Pennsylvania. Principles: Equality, cooperation religious tolerance
New Netherland
formed by Dutch in 1621. Hudson River New York area.
the owner of a colony
believed that gods "inner light" was in everyone. pacifists. Got along with NA
a theory that a country's goal is self sufficiency. In competition to acquire the most gold and silver. Purpose of colonies is to enrich Britain
England's legislative body
Navigation Acts
(1651) passed by Parliament. Restricted colonial trade with England. Benefited England.
Dominion of New England
Land from Southern Maine to NJ united into one colony
Sir Edmund Andros
(1680s) ruled New England. Enforced English laws. Made lots of enemies. collected taxes w/o permission. made Colonists mad
Glorious Revolution
William and Mary take over (Catholic) England Parliament make it Protestant. Parliament takes power over monarchy. similar revolution against Andros in colonies
Salutary neglect
tightening Navigation Acts on colonies. Actually loosened its grip. lax enforcement as long as economy=good
Cash crop
Tobacco; John Rolf created new high demand strain. High demand in Europe
Middle passage
20% slaves died whiles travelling ships back to America from Africa in West Indies
Stono Rebellion
Slave rebellion in Connecticut (1739). 20 slaves kill plantation owners. eventually surrounded by militia. created more harsh laws for slaves
a time of reason rather than religion. less focus on church
Benjamin Franklin
Enlightenment figure. Truth/reasoning (experimentation)
Jonathan Edwards
wanted to revive puritan vision during Enlightenment
Great Awakening
(1730-1740) religious revival. united all walks of life. (slaves colonists NA etc)
New France
French territory in America (Louisiana)
George Washington
General in begginings of F+I war
French and Indian War
4th war btwn Brit + France for control over North America. French+NA alliance. French defeated. Goal: to drive French out of ohio valley (fertile land)
William Pitt
lead British army and won battles. Attracted Uruoqui to ally with British during F+I war.
Ottowa leader. Recognized French loss was loss for NA
Proclamation of 1763
Barrier for creating colonies. British couldn't enforce. Banned all settlements west of appalachians
George Grenville
Financial expert chosen by King George III to lower debt. Prime min 1763
Sugar Act
created by Grenville. Halved the colonial tax on foreign molasses (prevent smuggling). Placed taxes on certain imports. Strengthened the enforcement of law. Rose tensions between colonists + English
difference between N and S colonies
Northern= Commercial, Urban, Commerce + Trade oriented (rocky infertile soil)

Southern= Cash Crops, Tobacco, Corn (Farming + Slaves) (Agricultural)
Lord Baltimore
founded Maryland; Roman Catholic, Colony famous for religious freedom
-considered as property of others
- Americans: First tried to enslave NA (unable to)
-> then used Africans as slaves (slave trade) (1600s)
Triangular Trade/Middle Passage
- Passage: btwn Africa and West Indies
- slaves crammed into ships, many die (20%)

1. Rum from New England to Africa
2. Trade rum for Slaves
4. Sold Slaves for Sugar and Molasses in West Indies/North America
5. Molasses to New England- made into rum
Salem Witch Trials
Mass Hysteria in Salem, Mass
accusing ppl of being witches (many hung)
- started w/ strict limitations on women
- social tension
- religious fanaticism
- fear of NA attacks
- movement away from Religion
- towards logical thinking (science)
Ben Franklin
- Enlightenment figure
- truth through experimentation/reasoning
Great Awakening
Return of Puritanical Religion after Enlightenment
-Jonathan Edwards: Clergyman who wanted to revive Puritan values
-Brought all walks of life back to religion
French and Indian War
-4th War btwn Britain + France over N American control
-ends in 1763: Treaty of Paris (most land= British/Spanish)
George Washington
- 22yr old officer during F + I war
- began war- his militia atked French soldiers
William Pitt
- F + I war
- Re-invigorates British Army
- Starts winning battles, Iroquois(NA) join British
- Recognizes that French loss in F + I War= Loss for NA
- lead NA to capture 8 British Forts , tried to destroy 2 others
- all caught smallpox died
Proclamation of 1763
- By Britain after F + I war to end conflicts with NA
- banned all settlements west of Appellations
- created a line that colonists couldn't cross
- couldn't enforce, many colonists went west anyway
Rising Tensions after F + I War
- colonists start getting pissed off @ British
- b/c Britain taxed colonists for F + I war
Stamp/Sugar Act
After F + I war (1765)
- Stamp Act: taxed colonists on all legal documents
- Sugar Act: tried to stop smuggling, strengthened law
Samuel Adams
Resistance to Stamp/Sugar Act
- lead Sons of Liberty (rebel group)
- abolished the stamp act
- Start of Colonial rebellion
Townshend Acts
- Indirect taxes on imported goods from Britain to Colonists
- taxed tea (lead to protest (Boston Tea Party)
Boston Massacre
- fight between colonists + British guards
- resulted in death of 3 men
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773
- Boston rebels dressed up like NA
- hijacked British ships, Dumped tea off
Intolerable Acts
in response to Tea Party
- shut down Boston Harbor (until colonists payed for tea damages)
- made colonists open their homes to British soldiers
- placed Boston under Martial Law
-Colonist soldiers from New England area
- began to stockpile weaponry for British "confrontation"/ rebellion
- "The British are coming!"
- Minutemen/British confront each other
- someone shoots, 8 MM killed 1 Brit injured
- First Battle of Revolutionary War
- Concord= bloody march/ambush MM kill British soldiers (retaliation)
- "shot heard 'round the world"
1st/2nd Continental Congress
- debate over the next move in revolution and how America can govern themselves
Battle of Bunker Hill
- Colonists shoot down redcoats
- But redcoats win
- Deadliest battle of war
Olive Branch Petition
- Colonists plead for "former harmony" btwn Britain and Colonists
- King George rejects, states colonies in rebellion
- orders parliament to blockade the American coast
Common Sense
- pamphlet by Thomas Paine
- attacks King George
- propaganda to sway Colonists to revolt against Britain
Thomas Jefferson
- chosen to draft a declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence
(July 4, 1776)
- Colonist's appeal for Independence from Britain
- attack on Britain's violation of Colonists' rights
- All Men are created Equal (no women, men , blacks, NA)
Revolutionary War
-Washington= main American officer
- British Strategy: split colonies in two (fails)
- America gains French support (huge help)
-British surrender @ Yorktown (1781)
-Treaty of Paris= Britain recognizes US independence + established borders
- Now what?- how to govern?, NA?, equality?, Brit leave forts?
Articles of Confederation
- Set up new govt that tried to prevent tyranny like Britain
-Confederation= loose union of states
-WEAK central govt, more power to states
-need 2/3 majority to pass laws, ttl agrmt 4 amnds
-no president/leader
-can't tax
-can't regulate trade
-can't have an army
Land Ordinance of 1785/Northwest Ordinance of 1787
-Land Ordinance= plan for surveying land in west
-Northwest Ordinance= dividing ^ into territories
-when a territory had 5k voters, they could draft a temp constitution and form a govt
-when a territory had a pop of 60k+ they could write a state constitution and could be approved to be a state by congress
Shay's Rebellion
-Proved Articles were weak
-Farmers in debt- so they rebel
-almost overthrow weak govt
-ppl now know they need a stronger govt
Constitutional Convention
-55 delegates in Philly to draft new Constitution
James Madison
The Constitution
1. Representation: The Great Compromise: controversial but 2 houses (Senate + House) (1 on pop, 1 on each state)
2. Slavery: 3/5 Compromise (slave=3/5 person in population)
3. Division of Power: Federalism= divided power btwn national/state govts
Checks and Balances
3 branches:
1. legislative= make laws
2. executive= enforce laws (elected by electors elected by ppl not elected drctly by ppl)
3. judicial= interpret laws
all check and balance each other
Federalists/Anti Federalists
Federalists= favor new constitution/strong govt
Anti Federalists= favor states rights/weak centr govt
Federalist Papers
-Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay AKA Publius
-propoganda/informed ppl the need for a strong centr govt and a new constitution
-assured protection against tyranny (Britain)
Bill of Rights
-Added w/ the Constitution to please Anti-Feds and protect against tyranny
-Guarantees protection
1.freedom of speech/religion
2. right to bear arms
3.prevent housing of troops
4-8. Fair treatment when accused of crimes
9-10. States' and ppls' rights
DIDNT apply to NA, African Americans, Women
Judiciary Act of 1789
-passed under George Washington
-Const sets up judiciary branch
-Creates structure and ability to appeal
state court<federal court<Supreme Court
- + creates ongoing precedent of Presidential Cabinet (group of homies to help run ish)
Alexander Hamilton
-Secretary of Treasury under George Washington
-US= debt of $75million after Rev War
-wants to take all debt away from states (South made, doesnt want to pay for Norther Debt)
-Starts taxing imports (like Whiskey)
Bank of US
Hamilton v. Jefferson
(Federalists) v. (Antifederalists)

-Feds= love bank (strong govt, strong commerce)
-bank "necessary and proper" (North Support)

-Anti Feds= hate bank (too much fed power, states should control)
-strict intp of constitution (South support)
-Anti Federalists become Democratic-Republicans
-becomes Jeffersons party
-creates Faction problem btwn Feds + JDR
Whiskey Rebellion
-Farmers Pissed b/c Whiskey taxed
-"Taxation w.o representation!"
- rebellion stopped quickly
- Shows how new govt under Constitution is WAY stronger than AoC (Compare to Shay's Rebellion)
Jay's Treaty
-Washington sends John Jay to England to avoid war
-England agrees to pay back US for stolen goods (but doesn't say theyll stop)
- America has to pay back pre-Rev war debts
Washington's Farewell Address
-France + England go to war (English steals stuff from US boats)
-Feds= want to help Brit, AntiFeds= want to help France
-End of Washington's term: he advises to avoid political factions, stay neutral in foreign affairs
XYZ affair
-John Adams president
-France pissed over Jay's Treaty (start atking US ships)
-Adams sends ppl to France to talk but 3 french agents demand $ to talk to french leader
-Americans pissed and want war, Adams knows we are too weak
Alien and Sedition Acts
-Feds make to stop JDRs/poor immigrant
-Super unconstitutional

Alien Act- raise citizen req. from 5yrs to 14yrs
-can deport/jail "dangerous aliens" w.o trial

Sedition Act- fine and punish anyone who speaks badly about fed government (aimed @ JDR)
-written to expire in 1801 (so couldn't be used against fed in reelection)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Nullification: "compact theory" (states v. feds)
-states cre8 fed govt ie have the right to nullify/cancel fed laws
-written by Madison + Jefferson
-kills Alien + Sedition acts
-only Virginia and Kentucky pass laws
Lewis and Clark
commissioned by Jefferson to explore the west
-(Land bought in Louisiana Purchase)
Marbury v. Madison
-right before Jeff takes presidency: Feds write summons for new Sup Court Fed Judges
-but Jeff never delivers the summons
-Marbury= 1 of the judges
-Madison= supposed to deliver the summons
-Judicial Review: Supreme Court given power to give president orders
Louisiana Purchase
-Jeferson believes in strict intp of Constitution
-Gets amazing deal from Napoleon ($15mil 2x US size)
-decides to change views- "loose" intp of Constitution buys it anyways
-Feds dont want land b/c new famers= more JDR (switch their intp of Const. to argue Jeff)
Chesapeake Incident
-Britain ship takes US soldiers
-US takes some of their ppl
-British Ship attacks US ship
War of 1812
3 reasons go to war w/ England
1. Freedom of seas- want to sail w/o fear (english capturing ships)
2. Possibility of land- might gain Canada/Florida
3. Indian Issue- US pissed at England for helping/arming indians

-"Mr. Madison's War"
-N + SW dis-united (N against SW for)
- US loses a lot but make it thru
-Treaty of Ghent ends war- neutrality (no winners/losers)
-"2nd war of independence"- US stood up for itself, proved its strength, treated w/ more respect
Industrial Revolution
-usage of machines (speed up production)
-mass production (interchangeable parts)
-growth of unskilled labor force
-started in England moved to US (US forced to w/ Embargo act + English blockade)
-prevalent/impact in the North (built on trade/commerce)
Eli Whitney
-created Cotton Gin- speeds up production like crazy, huge increase in slaves , South= no need to industrialize

-created interchangeable parts (allow unskilled labor + mass production)
Henry Clay
-The Great Compromiser
1.Missouri Compromise
2.Compromise of 1850
-American System
-Runs for Prez but loses
American System
-Henry Clay
-wants to unite N and S economic interests
-N make goods for S
-S produce raw materials for N
1. develop transportation
2. protective tariff (discourages foreign dependency)
3.resurrect national bank
Monroe Doctrine
-Europe: stay out of Latin America
-East: deal with things in east
-West: deal with things in west
-mind your own business
Missouri Compromise
-(1818) Henry Clay
-36'30 line- north=free, south=slave
-Missouri= Slave
-Maine= free
Andrew Jackson
JDR (Anti-Fed)
-war hero, lacked political experience
-tough and appealed to common man
-Spoils system- he won pres, win reward (spoils= put his unqualified buddies in cabinet) corrupt
-treats NA badly (Trail of Tears)
-makes mistakes (Tariff of Abominations)
Trail of Tears
under Jackson (1830)
-Indian Removal Act: force NA west, take land "for their safety"
-Five Civilized Tribes forced to move west
-US incredibly cruel, steal from NA 30% die
-one of the darkest events in US history
Tariff of Abominations
under Jackson
-Congress wants higher tariff (23% to 37%)
-Jackson doesn't like, pushes tariff to 45% to make it fail
-BACKFIRES, it passes
-South hates= hikes up prices of production
-North loves= forces ppl to buy from them not Britain
South Carolina Exposition
response to Tariff of Abominations
-nullifies tariff in SC
-SC threatens secession
-brings back "compact theory" (states v. fed) and the right of states to nullify (leads to Civil War)
Panic of 1837
2nd Great Awakening
-salvation not predetermined, can improve yourself + society
-religious "revivals" in tents, passionate sermons + studying soul, lasted days at atime
-leads to reform: Education, Women , Slavery
-idea of living a simple life
-nature, the individual
-Thoreau- writes Walden, Civil Disobedience
Dorothea Dix
-showed the cruelty of prisons
- began to provide care for mentally ill
Cult of Domesticity
-the idea that women belong in home
-raise kids, cook
-only 10% women work outside of home (1/2 men wages)
Temperance Movement
-women want to get rid of alcohol (during 2nd GA)
-causes bad stuff
Seneca Falls Convention
-women start pushing for reform
-1st meeting to outline women's rights "Declaration of Sentiments"
Sojourner Truth
-AA Woman
-argued for AA + Women's rights
-Women scared AA would steal thunder for their rights
Cottage/Factory Industry
-factories can outsource parts/stuff to ppl in homes
-Apprentice/journeyman/master no longer needed
Lowell Mills
-factories hire young, unmarried girls
-don't cost a lot (low wages)
-make of 90% of NE mill workers
Market Revolution
-buy and sell goods for profit rather than for personal use
-Capitalism, Entrepreneurialism, rise in inventions
-Specialized roles form (of N, S , E , W)
-Infrastructure + Transportation
New Inventions
-Steel plow (innovation in farming)
-Telegraph (huge imptc in communication) lots of telegraph wire set up in only a few yrs
-Steam engine (huge innovation in transportation (boats can move upstream)
Manifest Destiny
-movement west destined by God
-move into Mexican territory
-fresh start (escape Panic of 1837)
Oregon Trail
-brought ppl out west
-hard trip, risk being attacked by NA/dieing
"54'40 or Fight!"
-US/Brit share Oregon
-James K Polk wants whole thing
-Compromise: extend it along the 49th parellel
Expansion to Texas
-Mex seeks growth (opens borders to US)
-but too many come over (Mex regrets)
-Close borders but still Americans come in
-Santa Ana forces Texans to obey Mex law, kills 187
Mexican American War
-Polk eyes Texas , New Mexico and Cali
-Mex attacks when polk stations men on Rio Grande border
-Sectional opp on war
-South= Yes (new land= extend slavery)
-North= No (would make south too strong)
-Mex= bad strategy, unorganized
-US wins
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-ends Mex Am war
-US pays $15mill for Cali, NM, NV, UT, AZ