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190 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Final

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Epimysium
The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the
have many nuclei
Muscle fibers differ from "typical calls" in that muscle fibers
Myoblast
Skeletal muscles fibers are formed from embryonic cells called
Storage and release site for calcium ions
Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcomere
The repeating unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the
Muscle contraction
Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for
H Band
The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the
A transverse tubule and two terminal cisternae
The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of
Tropomyosin molecules
At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by
Troponin molecules
At rest, the tropomyosin molecule is held in place by
Synaptic cleft
The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the
Calcium binds to troponin
Active sites on the actin become available for binding after
Calcium Ions
In response to action potential arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases
Thin filaments and think filaments
Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction
A motor unit
A single motor neuron together with all the muscle fibers it innervates is called
Slow
The type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is the _________ fiber
Most of the muscle's energy is produced in mitochondria
During activities requiring aerobic endurance
All of the above are characteristics of smooth muscle
Which of the following is not characteristic of smooth muscle?
- Smooth muscles are uninucleate
- Smooth muscles do not contain sarcomeres
-Neurons that innervate smooth muscles are under involuntary control
- Thin filaments of smooth muscle fibers are attached to dense bodies
Plasticity
The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called
All of the above
When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,
-the zones of overlap get larger
-the width of the A band remains constant
-the Z lines get closer together
-the H bands and I bands get smaller
Fast fibers
Large-diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria are characteristics of
All of the above
In rigor mortis,
-cross-bridges cycling is absent
-the myosin heads are attached to actin
-ATP is depleted
-Muscles are inextensible
The concentration of calcium ion in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of a resting muscle
Which of the following is greater
Acetylcholine binds to chemically gated channels in the end plate membrane
Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after
More permeable to sodium ions
When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the end plate membrane becomes
Direct long-term functions, such as growth
Which of the following is not a function of the nervous system
Somatic
The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.
Afferent
That part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated
Satellite Cells
Which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system
Oligondendrocytes
The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by
Axon hillock
The axon is connected to the cell body at the
Vesicles
Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic
3 intracellular sodium ions for 2 extracellular potassium ions
At the normal resting potential of a typical neuron, its NA-K ion exchange pump transports
Depolarization and increased positive charge inside the membrane
Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes
All stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials
The all-or-none principle states that
Calcium
The ion that triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft is
Chemical
Which type of synapse is most common in the nervous system
Synaptic transmission would fail
If the chemically gated sodium channels in the postsynaptic membrane were completely blocked,
Spatial summation
Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated
are local hyperpolarizations
IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials)
All of the above
Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways
-through chemically-gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission
-through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential
-through passive or leak channels
-by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump
Leak channels
Ion channels that are always open are known as
The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions
Which of the following statements about the action potential is false
Loss of sensation and motor control
Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in
May be either a depolarization or a hyperpolarization
Graded potentials
The axon would be unable to generate action potentials
Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons
Epimysium
The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the
Muscle contraction
Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for
Cardiac muscle stimulation is neural
Which of the following statements is false
Myoblasts
Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called
Slow fibers
Which type of muscle fibers are best adapted for prolonged contraction such as standing all day?
have many nuclei
Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers
H band
The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the
Storage and release site for calcium ions
Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum
Tropomyosin molecules
At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by
All of the answers are correct
The thin filaments of striated muscle contain which proteins
All of the answers are correct
When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts,
Plasticity
The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of length is called
Calcium binds to troponin
Active sites on the actin become available for binding after
Transverse tubules
The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by
Calcium ions
In response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases
Thin and thick filaments
Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction?
All of the answers are correct:
-the myosin heads are attached to actin
-ATP is depleted
-muscles are inextensible
-cross-bridge cycling is absent
In rigor mortis
Zone of overlap
In a sarcomere, cross-bridge attachment occurs specifically in the
Acetylcholine binds to chemically-gated channels in the end plate membrane
Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after
3, 5, 1, 4, 6, 2
The following is a list of events that occur during a muscle contraction:
1. Myosin cross-bridges bind to the actin
2. The free myosin head splits ATP
3. Calcium ion is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
4. The myosin head pivots towards the center of the sarcomere.
5. Calcium ion binds to troponin
6. The myosin head binds an ATP molecule and detaches from the actin.
It would cause spastic paralysis (Muscles are contracted and unable to relax)
How would the loss of acetylcholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle
more permeable to sodium ions
When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the end plate membrane becomes
Reduces the muscles ability for contraction
A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drugs effect on skeletal muscle contraction?
additional oxygen is required to restore energy reserves consumed during exercise
During the recovery period the bodys need for oxygen is increased because
Synaptic cleft
The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the
Somatic
The __________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles.
Afferent
The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated
Microglia
Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called
formation of cerebrospinal fluid
Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the
astrocytes
The neuroglial cells that participate in maintaining the blood-brain barrier are the
Acetylcholine
Cholinergic synapses release the neurotransmitter
Depolarization
Opening of sodium channels in the axon membrane causes
Chemically-gated channels
______ open or close in response to binding specific molecules.
may either be a depolarization or hyperpolarization
Graded potenials
All of the answers are correct:
-through voltage-gated channels as in the action potential
-through passive or leak channels
-by ATP-dependent ion pumps like the sodium-potassium exchange pump
-through chemically-gated channels as in neuromuscular transmission
Ions can move across the plasma membrane in which of the following ways?
Chemically-regulated potassium channel
If ACh causes inhibition of a postsynaptic neuron, to what type of membrane channel did the ACh bind?
an inhibitory stimulus
A stimulus that changes a postsynaptic neuron's membrane from resting potential to -85 mV
Neurotransmitter; receptor
The same ___________ can have different effects depending on the properties of the ____________________.
all stimuli great enough to bring the membrane to threshold will produce identical action potentials.
The all-or-none principple states that
The rapid depolarization phase is caused by the entry of potassium ions
Which of the following statements about the action potential is false?
depolarization nevessary to cause an action potential
A threshold stimulus is the
The axon would be unable to generate action potentials.
Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork.. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons?
the postsynaptic neuron
A neuron that receives neurotransmitter from another neuron is called
spatial summation
Summation that results from the cumulative effect of multiple synapses at multiple places on the neuron is designated
central nervous system
The spinal cord is part of the
Axons of sensory neuron
The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains
Dura mater
The tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the
All of the answers are correct;
-inflammation of the meninges occurs
-bacteria can be the cause
-viruses can be the cause
In meningitis
Subarachnoid space
Samples of CSF for diagnostic purposes are normally obtained by placing the tip of a needle in the
Shingles
In the condition ________, a virus infects a spinal nerve, causing a painful rash whose distribution corresponds to that of the affected sensory nerves as seen in their dermatomes.
Would lose function of his lower and upper extremities
If a person has a crust injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would expect that he
Whether they are sensory or motor
Reflexes can be classified according to all of the following, except
Innate
Refleces based on synapses formed before birth are
Reciprocal inhibition
Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a process called
Crossed extensor
The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles .
Moves a limb away from a painful stimulus
The flexor reflex
a polysynaptic reflex
In which of the following would the delay between stimulus and response be greater?
are arranged according to dermatomes
All of the following are true of polysynaptic reflexes, except that they
Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord
Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, where she is examines. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinki reflex). These results suggest that
31
The spinal cord consists of five regions and _____________ segments.
diencephalon
Which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem?
Medulla oblongata
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the
Hypothalamus
The ______________ provides the principal link between the nervous and the endocrine system.
All of the answers are correct;
-the capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions.
-It is generally permeable to lipid-soluble compounds.
-Astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries.
-It is absent in portions of the hypothalamus.
Which of the following is a property of the blood-brain barrier?
All of the answers are correct;
-the blood-brain barrier
-the bones of the skull
-the cranial meninges
-the CSF
Which of the following help to protect the brain?
Provides ATP for impulse transmission
Which of the following is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
The medulla oblongata
The respiratory rhythmicity center is located in
Cerebellum
Overseeing the postural muscle of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the
Ataxia
The cerebellum can be permanently damaged by stroke or temporarily affected by drugs or alcohol. The resulting disturbance in motor control is known as
All of the answers are correct;
-produces ADH
-controls autonomic centers
-regulates body temperature
-secretes oxytocin
Which of the following is a function of the hypothalamus?
the limbic system
The desire to perform a task (like study for your favorite class Human A&P!) is a component of this area of the brain. That is why it is also referred to as the motivational system.
Beta waves
This pattern of electrical activity is observed on an EEG when an individual is concentrating on a task or is under stress
hypothalamus
Joe begins to experience mood swings and disturbed thirst and hungar. Imaging studies indicate that a brain tumor is the likely cause of these disorders. In what part of the brain in the tumor most likely located?
Cortex
Regions in the cerebrum that interpret sensory information or coordinate motor responses are called _________ areas.
Allows us to interpret what is seen or heard
The general interpretive area
able to see letters but unable to associate them into words
A person with a damage visual association area may be
Integrative
________ centers receove information from many association areas and direct extremely complex motor activities such as speech.
Aphasia
______ is a disorder affecting the ability to speak or read.
receptor specificity
Taste receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to
All of the answers are correct;
-touch
-warmth
-pain
-vibration
Examples of sensory stimuli include
Tactile receptor
A receptor that contains many mechanically-gated ion channels would function best as a
Proprioceptors
Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called
Barioreceptors; Chemoreceptors
Bladder fullness is to ____________ as blood pH is to _______________.
Referred pain
Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of
Spinocerebellar
The spinal tract that carries sensation from proprioceptors to the CNS is the
Number of motor units in that region
The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the
Receptive field
The _______ is the area monitored by a single receptor cell.
Phasic
Sensory neurons that adapt quickly are called ____________ receptors
Somatic
The _________ nervous system carries impulses to skeletal muscles.
Sound
The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except
They are classified as phasic receptors
All of the following statements about nociceptors are true, except
Anencephaly
In ____________________, the brain fails to develop about the mesencephalon or lower diencephalon.
Spinothalamic
Phantom limb pain and reffered pain are associated with which sensory pathway?
Chemoreceptors
Which of the following is not a class of mechanoreceptors?
Sympathetic
The ____________ division of the autonomic nervous system is said to function during "fight or flight".
Digestion
The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?
Dilation of the airways
Parasympathetic functions include all of the following, except
Both parasympathetic and sympathetic levels of stimulation
The regulation of blood pressure depends upon
Decreased blood pressure
Drugs that have effects similar to those of sympathetic activation are called sympathomimetic drugs. Which of the following would you not expect to observe in a person who has taken a sympathomimetic drug
Blocks beta receptors in cardiac muscle tissue
Tom suffers from hypertension (high blood pressure). Which of the following might help him deal with his problem? A drug that
Digestion
The parasympathetic nervous system is especially active during which physiological state(s)?
Both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation.
Dual innervation refers to an organ receiving
Allows ANS neurons to increase or decrease their activity, providing a range of control options.
Autonomic tone is an important aspect of ANS function because it
an increase in blood flow through the vessel
A decrease in the autonomic tone of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel would result in
Both epinephrine and norepinephrine
The suprarenal medulla secretes
Increased sympathetic input and decreased parasympathetic input
Which of the following would lead to increased heart rate
Limbic system
Which of the following is essential for memory consolidation
Anterograde amnesia
Mechanisms involved in memory formattion and storage involve all of the following, except
Tertiary memories
Long term memories that are with you for a lifetime are called
Memory consolidation
Conversion of short-term memory to long-term memory is called
Reticular Activating system
The conscious state is maintained by the
Norepinephrine; serotonin
The regulation of awake-asleep cycles appears to involve an interplay between different neurotransmitters. The one that favors alertness is _________________________ and the other promoting deep sleep is _________________.
All of the answers are correct;
-Reduction in brain size and weight
-decrease in the number of neurons.
-decreased blood flow to the brain/
-changes in synaptic organization in the brain.
Changes in the central nervous system that accompany aging include
REM sleep
Active dreaming occurs in this state
Anterograde amnesia
Jim was in an automobile accident and is no longer able to store new memories. However, his memories of past events are still intact. Jim is most likely suffering from
Acetylcholine
What neurotransmitter is released from all neurons of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
Skeletal muscles
The parasympathetic division of the ANS innervated all of the following structures, except
Memory engram
A single neural circuit that corresponds to a single memory is referred to as a
All of the above;
-the nature of the stimulus
-the frequency of the stimulus
-the intensity of the stimulus
The rate at which a short-term memory is converted into a long-term memory is affected by
Function independently of the endocrine system
All of the following are true of the nervous system except, that it doesn't
Hormones
___________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
One
A simple endocrine reflex involves ____________ hormone(s)
All of the answers are correct;
-Quantities of enzymes
-Activities of enzymes.
-Synthesis of enzymes.
Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
All of the answers are correct;
-Blood level of an ion
-Blood level of glucose
-Blood level of a hormone
-Nervous stimuli
Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
Decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
The primary function of ADH is to
Secreting releasing and inhibiting factors
The hypothalamus controls the activities of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland by
ADH and oxytocin
The hypothalamus synthesizes
All of the answers are correct;
-FSH
-TSH
-ACTH
-GH
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland releases
ADH
The posterior pituitary gland secretes
ACTH
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
FSH
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
Iodine
Which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?
Hypothyroidism
Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
Calcitonin
The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
Parathyroid glands, parathyroid hormone
Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
Aldosterone
A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
Aldosterone
cells of the suprarenal cortex produce
Epinephrine
Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effect of the sympathetic nervous system?
Glucocoricoids
Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
Glucagon
If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
Insulin
The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
Diabetes mellitus
Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
Resistance
If stress last longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____________ phase of the general adaptaion syndrome. (GAS)
Neurotransmitters; hormones
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be _________ when released into the bloodstream, but _________ when released at synapses.