CBD: land use
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Terms in this set (61)
Suburbs: economic factorsFor richer peopleSuburbs: cultural factorsFamilies (for leisure)Rural urban fringe: land useBusiness parks, high class housingRural urban fringe: social factorsLots of spaceRural urban fringe: economic factorsCheaper and bigger housesRural urban fringe: cultural factorsRicher people, rural life styleConcentric ring modelGrowth outwards in time with oldest buildings in CBD (land is cheaper with distance from CBD)Hoyt's sector modelGrowth in sectors of similar land uses concentrated in parts of citiesTypical British city modelCombines features from both modelsDormitory villageOnly for residing/accomodation, no jobs, people must commute to workOuter citySuburbs and rural urban fringeUrban declineThe process whereby a previously functioning city, town or area falls into disrepairUrban regeneration (e.g. Chapelfields, Riverside in Norwich)The process of rehabilitation of impoverished urban neighbourhoods by large scale renovation or reconstruction of housing and public worksUrban decline consequencesSocial and economic (see: inner city), environmental: pollution (litter, graffiti, atmospheric, congestion), political (e.g. poor quality, housing, overcrowding)Conservation areasParts of a town with historic buildings that are protectedConurbationA large urban area formed when cities and towns merge as they grow towards each otherLand useThe different ways that land is used (e.g. industry, recreation)ResidentialAn area with housesSink estateA housing area with a poor reputation for its living conditionsZoneAn area with mainly one type of land useSustainable developmentDevelopment that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needsSustainable development: economicGood jobs, fair wages, security, infrastructure, fair tradeSustainable development: environmentalNo pollution/waste, renewable energy, conservation, restorationSustainable development: socialWorking conditions, health services, education services, community and culture, social justiceEco townA town designed to be sustainable and that do not cause environmental problemsEco homeA house designed in ways that conserve resourcesZero carbonNot releasing any CO2 into the atmosphereCarbon neutralNot adding to the net amount of CO2 in the atmosphereRapid transit systemPublic transport (trains or trams with short waiting times and regular stops)Disadvantages of eco townsMay be too small to have the services needed, people need to travel out of town (inc. CO2 emission), just a way to let house building companies build on more greenfield land, should first be built on brownfield land thus not destroying countryside land, nearby towns have more local traffic, pressure on local services and red. value of homesGreenfield landLand on which there has not been any previous buildingsBrownfield landLand on which there have already been buildingsGreenfield land - positivesAlready green, open space, no need to demolish other buildings (so less $), cleaner air and less pollution, more flexibilityGreenfield land - negativesDestroys wildlife and habitats, less accessible so isolated from other settlements (residents have to travel out of thieir ecotown to work etc. so more congestion and CO2 emission), less facilities, land may not be flat so harder to build houses, need to build utilities (sewage)Brownfield land - positivesMore accessible (tend to be urban CBD), more facilities, utilities already in place (sewage, electricty), improving/making greener urban areas, prevents urban sprawlBrownfield - negativesMore pollution from surrounding cities and urban areas, expensive, may need to demolish buildingsConsumer goods (comparison goods)High order things that people buy (likely to be situated in the city centre or shopping mall which attracts more people)Convenience goodsLow order things that people buy frequently for everyday needs and are readily available (e.g. groceries)EtailingBuying and selling goods and services online through the internetShopping heirachyOut of town shopping mall (high order), city centre, town centre, farmer's market, newsagent (low order)Clone townsTowns that look the same (as shops belonging to national chains replace locally run businesses)Out of town malls: socialProvide jobs, convenientOut of town malls: economicCheaper land (high return from selling) BUT transport costsOut of town malls: environmentalIf brownfield, good to reuse land for recreation BUT must travel a distance so inc. CO2 emissionEtailing: positivesFast, convenient (whenever, wherever), easy (shop in own home), range of products and servicesEtailing: negativesShops selling specialist goods at risk of decline (unless they too sell online)RangeThe maximum distance a person will travel to a shop or serviceThresholdThe minimum number of customers needed for a shop or service to be profitableSphere of influenceThe area served by a shop or serviceCatchment areaThe area from which people come to a shop or a shopping centreFood milesThe distance that good has been transported before it is sold