40 terms

PSYModules 43,56,57

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of ______-__________ on attitudes
To "brainwash" captured American soldiers during the Korean war, Chinese communists made effective use of the ________-____-_____-_________ phenomenon.
A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a stranger's violent behavior stems from his or her aggressive personality best illustrates the ___________ _____________ error
Fundamental attribution
Feeling responsible for behavior that violates our conscience is most likely to contribute to __________ ___________
Cognitive Dissonance
Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of the _________ _________ error
Fundamental Attribution
An unlikeable person is likely to be perceived as more negatively (before/after) a group discussion of that person's qualities, and a likable person is likely to be perceived as more positively (before/after) a group discussion of that person's qualities.
Groupthink can be prevented by a leader who invites __________ ____________ to critique a group's developing plans
outside experts
Group polarization is most likely to occur in a group where individuals share a ___________ opinion.
The presence of others ____________ a person's performance on well-learned tasks and _____________ a person's performance on unmastered tasks.
improves; hinders
The level of obedience in the Milgram experiments was highest when the "teacher" was __________ the experimenter and ________ the "learner".
close to; away from
Studying initially healthy men over a 10-year period, researchers found that pessimistic adult men were more than twice as likely as optimistic men to experience ______ _______ disease
coronary heart disease
By attacking the body's own tissues, an overly reactive immune system is most likely to cause ___________
Although stress does not CREATE cancer cells, it may affect their growth by suppressing the activity of T-____________
Genuine illnesses that are caused by stress are called __________ illnesses
Immune system cells that pursuer and destroy diseased body cells are called _ _ cells
The fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observes to attribute a strangers act of kindness to a __________ __________
Compassionate Personality
When a student volunteers to debate an issue, taking the side he personally DISAGREES with great _________ ________ is produced
Cognitive dissonance
Poverty and unemployment are likely to be explained in terms of ____________ by political liberals and in terms of ___________ by political conservatives.
Situational Constraints; Personal Dispositions
Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to _________ ______
Personality traits
Concluding her presentation on deindividuation, Renee notes that deindividuation is less likely in situations that promote increased _________-___________
When the task of correctly identifying an individual in a slide of a four-person lineup was both difficult and important, participants in an experiment were especially likely to conform to others' wrong answers. This best illustrates the impact of __________ social influence.
In all of MIlgram's obedience experiments, participants were deceived about what?
The amount of shock the victim actually received.
A business leader who welcomes a variety of opinions from subordinates and invites expert's critiques of her company's developing plan is most likely to inhibit __________
In a stressful situation, feelings of pain are dulled by the __________ nervous system
Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by inhibiting the production of ______________
After being told that his parents have just been involved in a serious automobile accident, Bill is likely to experience an outpouring of _______________
The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are _______ ________, ____________, and _________
Alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
Physical and emotional responses to threatening and challenging events are referred to as _________ reactions.
Stress reactions
The _________ ________ Theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes.
Cognitive Dissonance
Instead of providing arguments in favor of a political candidate, ads may build political support by associating pictures of the candidate with emotion-evoking music and images. This strategy best illustrates the ____________ route to persuasion.
Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called _________
Two neighboring nations are each stockpiling weapons. Each sees its neighbor's actions as an act of aggression and its own actions as self-defense. Evidently, these nations are victims of the __________ ____________ error
Fundamental Attribution
Attribution theory was designed to account for how people __________ others behavior.
Masked bandits might be more likely than unmasked bandits to physically injure their victims due to
Professor Maslova attends faculty meetings simply to gain the approval of the college dean. Professor Maslova's behavior exemplifies the importance of ___________ social influence.
Being observed _________ conformity in groups of individuals.
The greatest number of deaths in North America today result from ____________
Heart disease
When experimenters have implanted tumor cells into rodents, those exposed to _______ were more prone to cancer.
Inescapable shocks
The field of PNI is most broadly concerned with how the psychological, neural, and endocrine systems together affect the _________ _________
Immune system
B Lymphocytes inhibit ________, whereas T lymphocytes inhibit __________.
Bacterial infections; viral infections