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A classification of plant formations and associated animal life into biotic units based on the predominant plant types, with at least eight major terrestrial types, is referred to as a(n) ___.


Which of the following allocates the greatest amount of biomass to photosynthetic tissue and the least amount to supportive tissue?

the extirpation of many of the island's bird and reptile species

The introduction of the brown tree snake in the 1940's to the island of Guam has resulted in


This is caused by excessive nutrient runoff into aquatic ecosystems

biodiversity hot spots

key geographic areas with high concentrations of endemic species and a large number of endangered and threatened species are known as __.

fragmented forests support a lesser biodiversity because the forested-adapted species leave, and only the edge and open-field species can occupy fragmented forests

which of the following is true about the current research regarding forest fragmentation?


Using the formula for effective population size, imagine a population of 1,000 small rodents. Of these, 300 are breeding females, 300 are breeding males, and 400 are nonbreeding juveniles. What is the effective population size?

Most of the nutrients in the ecosystem are removed in the harvested timber

Why do logged tropical rain forest soils typically have nutrient-poor soils?

C3 plants are more limited by CO2 availability because they lack mechanisms to prevent transpirational water loss

When levels of CO2 are experimentally increased in a typical grassland community, C3 plants generally respond with a greater increase in productivity than C4 plants. This is because

tropical rain forests

The highest diversity of plant and animal life occurs in


Which of the following is an example of a nonrenewable resource?

rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply.

A sustained yield refers to the

rotation time

In forestry, the period of time between harvests of trees at a site is called the ____.

needle-leaf evergreen leaves

Which of the following is the predominant leaf form of trees where the growing season is very short or where nutrient availability severely constrains photosynthesis and plant growth?

warm areas with seasonal rainfall in the tropics

savannas typically occur in

temperate shrubland

The dominant biome in mediterranean climates with hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters is


marine life that is caught, but is unwanted and discarded, is referred to as __

that current global warming is likely anthropogenic

The video on climate change and your textbook both agree on all the points below except

increase in developed countries and decrease in developing countries

as a consequence of global climate change, crop production is likely to

temperatures decrease

As aerosol concentrations increase

temperatures, sea levels, variability of climate, and precipitation will all increase

The general circulation models developed by atmospheric scientists predict that in the future,

increase their rate of photosynthesis

in response to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, plants generally

carbon dioxide

deforestation is a major cause of increased atmospheric concentrations of


which of the following gases in the atmosphere is not considered a greenhouse gas

suppressing lightning-strike fires

which of the following would not be considered a goal of restoration ecology?

linking reserves by habitat corridors

The dispersal of plants and animals from one reserve to another within a network of reserves is best accomplished by

a large reserve exposes organisms to proportionately more habitat edges

which of the following is NOT an advantage for preserving a large reserve rather than a small reserve?

large carnivore

The area of suitable habitat necessary for maintaining the number of individuals and ensuring the long-term survival of a species should be highest for a ___.

occurs in a single geographic area and nowhere else

An endemic species is best defined as a species that

habitat destruction

the primary cause of modern extinctions is ____


The negative consequences of harvesting a natural resource, such as the soil erosion and sedimentation of a river that occur after a forest is logged, typically are not included in the market price of the resource; these costs are referred to as

the rate of soil erosion increases

When trees are harvested and removed ____.

boreal forest

The vegetation formation dominated by needle-leaf evergreen trees and occurring at high latitudes or high elevations where growth is restricted to a few months of the year due to low temperatures is referred to as ___


frozen, treeless plains dominated by sedges, heaths, and willows at high latitudes and elevations is ____

some trees are cut but others are left to provide seed for new trees

Which of the following is not a characteristic of swidden agriculture or shifting cultivation?

Cultural eutrophication refers to the

accelerated nutrient enrichment of bodies of water due to runoff of chemical fertilizers.

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