1. The part of the brain located just behind the temples, containing neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech, is called the _______.
a. temporal lobes b. parietal lobes c. occipital lobes d. frontal lobes
a. temporal lobes
2. The cerebellum ______.
a. is involved in emotional behavior b. coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement c. relays messages from the sensory receptors d. controls blood pressure
b. coordinates involuntary rapid fine-motor movement
3. The lowest intensity of a particular stimulus that enables the average person to detect that stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the ______.
a. absolute threshold b. psychophysical threshold c. just noticeable difference d. difference threshold
a. absolute threshold
4. The average threshold for human vision is a candle flame seen from ______ on a dark, clear night.
a. 30 miles b. 15 miles c. 1 mile d. 7.5 miles
a. 30 miles
5. What term is used to describe a specialized cell that makes up the nervous system and receives and sends messages within that system?
a. glial cell b. myelin sheath c. neuron d. dendritic spine
6. After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea?
a. hypothesis b. experimental estimate c. extraneous variable d. dependent variable
*7. What is the approximate life expectancy of individual taste receptor cells?
a. 10-14 days b. 1-2 days c. 1-2 months d. 1 year
a. 10-14 days
8. The brain is divided into several different structures on the bottom part of the brain referred to as the "hindbrain." Which of the parts of the brain listed below is NOT located in the hindbrain?
a. thalamus b. pons c. cerebellum d. medulla
9. ______ are the raw data of experience, based on the activation of certain receptors located in the various sensory organs.
a. Perceptions b. Cognitions c. Emotions d. Sensations
*10. Which part of the brain is very small but extremely powerful and controls the pituitary gland?
a. thalamus b. amygdala c. hypothalamus d. hippocampus
11. Reuptake is________.
a. a chemical that is released into the synaptic gap b. a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles c. a protein molecule on the dendrite or cell body of a neuron that will interact only with specific neurotransmitters d. a chemical that plays a role in learning and attention
b. a process by which neurotransmitters are sucked back into the synaptic vesicles
*12. If you have a problem remembering things that happened a year ago, doctors might check for damage to the ______ area of the brain.
a. hypothalamus b. hippocampus c. amygdala d. fornix
13. A cell in the human nervous system whose primary function is to provide insulation and structure for neurons on which they may develop and work is called a(n) _________.
a. myelin cell b. epidermal cell c. adipose cell d. glial cell
d. glial cell
*14. Approximately how many taste receptors are located on each taste bud?
a. 2 b. 50 c. 500 d. 20
15. You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often "fails to generalize." Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion?
a. case study b. experiment c. correlation d. surveys
a. case study
16. Erin has learned to create a "truly red" light by focusing on only one wavelength of the visible spectrum. She is most likely to be concerned with which property of light?
a. decibels b. saturation c. accommodation d. intensity
*17. The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning is the _____.
a. cell membrane b. soma c. dendrite d. axon
18. Which of the following lobes are involved in planning, memory, and personality?
a. temporal lobes b. occipital lobes c. parietal lobes d. frontal lobes
d. frontal lobes
19. The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as the ______ theory.
a. trichromatic b. reductive color mixing c. additive color mixing d. opponent-process
*20. You attend a lecture by a psychologist who uses terms such as free will, human nature, and self-actualization. Which psychological perspective is most consistent with the points the psychologist presented?
a. psychodynamics b. functionalism c. humanism d. behaviorism
21. All of the following variables, except for ______ show a negative correlation.
a. school grades and IQ scores b. height and weight c. men's educational level and their income d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test
d. alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test
*22. The branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons are called ______.
a. synapses b. dendrites c. nerve bundles d. axons
*23. The section of the brain responsible for interpreting the visual information in the primary visual cortex is called the ______.
a. visual association cortex b. somatosensory cortex c. temporal lobe d. frontal lobe
a. visual association cortex
*24. A(n) ______ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.
a. dependent variable b. experimental effect c. correlation d. independent variable
25. Sound waves are simply _____.
a. a form of electronic radiation b. the impact of acoustrons in the air c. the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us d. none of these
c. the vibration of the molecules of the air surrounding us
*26. When you first put your hat on, you can feel it quite easily, but after a while, you forget that you are wearing a hat at all—the sensation is gone. What happens?
a. sensory fatigue b. habituation c. perceptual defense d. subliminal perception
27. Mei was sent to the school psychologist to be tested. Based on her IQ scores it was decided that she would do well in the gifted child program. This is an example of which goal of psychology?
a. describing behavior b. predicting behavior c. controlling behavior d. explaining behavior
b. predicting behavior
28. Which of the following situations best illustrates the placebo effect?
a. You throw up after eating bad meat. b. You have surgery to repair a defective heart valve. c. You sleep because you are tired. d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.
d. You drink a nonalcoholic drink and become "intoxicated" because you think it contains alcohol.
29. What are the five primary tastes?
a. peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic b. hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami c. salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart d. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
d. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
30. A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of _____.
a. description b. understanding c. control d. prediction
31. The goals of psychology are to _____.
a. improve psychological well-being in all individuals from birth until death b. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior c. explore the conscious and unconscious functions of the human mind d. understand, compare, and analyze human behavior
b. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior
32. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for night vision are ______.
a. cones b. bipolar cells c. rods d. ganglion cells
*33. What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
a. pituitary gland b. thalamus c. hypothalamus d. cerebellum
34. What is one of the major reasons that psychologists report results publicly?
a. to explain research results so that non-psychologists can understand them b. to identify all the extraneous variables c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments d. to comply with legal requirements
c. to allow researchers to replicate experiments
35. The sense of smell is also known as ____.
a. gustation b. olfaction c. the salivary sense d. chemical infarctation
36. When the electric potential in a cell is in action versus a resting state, this electrical charge reversal is known as the _____.
a. action potential b. excitation reaction c. resting potential d. permeable reaction
a. action potential
37. Which type of early psychologist believed that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts"?
a. behaviorist b. Gestaltist c. functionalist d. structuralist
38. The fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell is called the ______.
a. receptor site b. synaptic knob c. synapse d. axon terminal
39. A chemical found in the synaptic vesicles which, when released, has an effect on the next cell is called a _____.
a. precursor cell b. neurotransmitter c. synapse d. glial cell
40. An operational definition is _______.
a. a statement that attempts to predict a set of phenomena and specifies relationships among variables that can be empirically tested b. the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation c. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure d. an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships
c. the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure
41. Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands?
a. thymus b. thyroid c. pituitary d. adrenal
42. Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. "Girl," she says, "you sure have a lot of _____."
a. taste buds b. papillae c. taste receptors d. olfactory receptors
43. Which of the following properties of sound is the most similar to the brightness of light?
a. pitch b. volume c. purity d. timbre
44. Fluid located in the cochlea is set in motion and causes vibration in the _______.
a. ossicles b. semicircular canals c. bipolar cells d. basilar membrane
d. basilar membrane
45. Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called ________.
a. bipolar cells b. ossicles c. sensory receptors d. ganglion cells
c. sensory receptors
46. Which of the following questions could be answered best by using the survey method?
a. Does wall color affect the frequency of violence in prison populations? b. What is the effect of ingesting alcohol on problem-solving ability? c. What is the relationship between number of hours of study per week and grade point average? d. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
d. Do students prefer a grading system with or without pluses and minuses?
47. The class is playing a game of Jeopardy! and it is your turn. "I'll take Pioneers in Psychology for $50." The revealed answer is "Focused on unconscious factors and relied on the case study method." Just before the buzzer sounds, what will you say?
a. "Who are the behaviorists?" b. "Who is B. F. Skinner?" c. "Who are the humanists?" d. "Who is Sigmund Freud?"
d. "Who is Sigmund Freud?"
48. One purpose of the _____ is to speed up the neural message traveling down the axon.
a. receptor site b. axon terminal c. synaptic vesicle d. myelin
49. An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to ______.