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the transfer of information from DNA to messenger RNA(mRNA) is known as



is synthesized when a portion of a DNA molecule is transcribed

which of the following sequence is correct?

transcription>translation>protein synthesis

a DNA base sequence is A T G C C G. the sequence of bases in a strand of mRNA transcribed from this sequence of bases in DNA would be


the function of the Golgi apparatus is

a packaging and distribution of proteins and lipids

endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes attached to it is called

rough ER

if a toxic drug inhibited mRNA synthesis, which of the following would be most directly affected?

protein synthesis

the control center of the cell is the


the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient is called

active transport

the movement of substances from areas of high concentration to areas of less concentration



involves ingestion of liquids rather than particles

certain cells in the liver ingest bacteria and debris from damaged cells by a process called


the sodium-potassium exchange pump located in the plasma membrane

actively transports potassium into cells

active transport

requires energy

the greater the concentration of a

osmotic pressure of the solution

solution A contains 5 grams of sugar per liter while solution B contains 2 grams of sugar per liter. The solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. if the solvent in both solutions is water, predict in which direction most of the water molecules will move

move by osmosis from solution B to solution A

osmosis is the diffusion of_____across a selectively permeable membrane


a group of cells was treated with a proteolytic(protein-digesting)enzyme. which of the following processes would be least affected by this treatment

diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules through the plasma membrane

the plasma membrane is selectively permeable. this means

only certain substances can pass through it

what type of membrane proteins have an exposed site on the outer cell surface that can attach to a ligand

receptor proteins

cells that respond to ligands

a possess receptor sites for specific ligands

channel proteins

provide a "door" through which extracellular molecules can enter the cell

which of the following activities is a function of the plasma membrane

cell metabolism

membrane proteins that extend into the lipid bilayer are called

extrinsic proteins

fatty acid A has double covalent bonds scattered throughout its carbon chain while fatty acid B has only single covalent bonds between the carbons in its chain

fatty acid B is saturated

which of the following organic groups does DNA belong to

nucleic acid

what is the building molecule of proteins

amino acid


provide much of the structure of the body cells and tissures

the building blocks of proteins are

amino acids

large carbohydrates contain units called


normal blood pH is maintained within a range of


a buffer will

resist drastic changes in the pH of the solutions

solution A has a pH of 10 and solution B has a solution of 2. which of the following statements about these solutions is true

solution B has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than solution A

the pH value

is determined by the concentration of hydrogen ions

solution A increases its acidity. this means that the

number of hydrogen ions has increased

which of the following statements is false

water evaporation heats the body

the presence of water in or bodies allows us to

all of these are correct (cool the body with sweat, maintain a fairly constant body temperature, provide an environment for chemical reactions, and keep tissues moist and reduce friction

when ionic compounds dissolve in water,their ions

dissociate or separate from one another

isotopes of the same element have

the same atomic number but differ in their mass numbers


are the subatomic particles most involved in bonding behavior of atoms

a neutral atom will become a cation if it

loses electrons

the four most abundant elements in the human body are

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

which of the following is most inferior in location

pelvic cavity

medial means

toward the middle or midline of the body

which plane divides the body into equal right and left halves


a vertical plane that separates the body into right and left portions is called____plane


amputation of a foot at the ankle would involve a cut in the _____plane


the thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the


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