51 terms

AP Lit/Lang - Summer Reading Set 2

Vocabulary used for AP Literature and AP Lang Classes
Is an explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.
Indicated by a series of three periods, this indicates that some material has been omitted from a given text. It could be a word, a phrase, a sentence, a paragraph, or a whole section.
Is an informally-stated syllogism which omits either one of the premises or the conclusion. The omitted part must be clearly understood by the reader.
Detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly.
Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end.
The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme. Hemingway begins The Sun Also Rises with two epigraphs. One of them is "You are all a lost generation" by Gertrude Stein.
An adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun) by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject. Any word or phrase applied to a person or thing to describe an actual or attributed quality.
Repetition of one word (for emphasis). "Come, come, it may not be."
Substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person recognized for that attribute.
A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. "He went to his final reward" is a common expression for "he died." These devices are often used to obscure the reality of a situation.
The pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work.
Citing an example; using an illustrative story, either true or fictitious.
Background information presented in a literary work.
Extended Metaphor
A sustained comparison, often referred to as a conceit. The extended metaphor is developed throughout a piece of writing.
Figurative Language
The body of devices that enables the writer to operate on levels other than the literal one. It includes metaphor, simile, symbol, motif, and hyperbole, etc.
Figures of Speech
Deliberate departures from the ordinary and literal meanings of words in order to provide fresh, insightful perspectives or emphasis. These devices are most commonly used in descriptive passages and include the following: Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Etc...
The shape or structure of a literary work.
Assertions or conclusions based on some specific instances. Value is determined by the quality and quantity of examples on which it is based. Bob Greene in "Cut" (p.57) formulates a ________--being cut from an athletic team makes men super achievers later in life--on the basis of five examples.
Use of two words connected by a conjunction, instead of subordinating one to the other, to express a single complex idea. EX: The Sound and the Fury.
This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
A ("exchanging") or transferred epithet; grammatical agreement of a word with another word which it does not logically qualify. More common in poetry. EX: "Being smoked by a large cigar."
Separation of words which belong together, often to emphasize the first of the separated words or to create a certain image. EX: 'Sorry I be, but go you must'
Extreme exaggeration, often humorous, it can also be ironic; the opposite of understatement. EX: "To wait an eternity."
Consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer them, usually at some length.
Using subordination to show the relationship between clauses or phrases (and hence the opposite of parataxis). EX: While I am in the world, I am the light of the world)
Hysteron Proteron
("later-earlier") An inversion of the natural sequence of events, often meant to stress the event which, though later in time, is considered the more important. EX: Let us fail and take this test. reversal of logical order
A verbal approximation of a sensory impression, concept, or emotion.
The total effect of related sensory images in a work of literature.
The process that moves from a given series of specifics to a generalization.
A conclusion one can draw from the presented details.
A verbally abusive attack.
An unexpected twist or contrast between what happens and what was intended or expected to happen. It involves dialog and situation, and can be intentional or unplanned.
Understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed. (Sometimes used synonymously with meiosis.) EX: "It was not a pretty picture."
The process of reasoning.
Logical Fallacy
A mistake in reasoning.
Loose Sentence
A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the clause would be a complete sentence. A work containing this type of construct often seems informal, relaxed, and conversational.
Dramatic Irony
Centers on the ignorance of those involved; whereas, the audience is aware of the circumstance.
Consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow. Ex: I just told you that a toaster is powered by electricity. Now I will tell you what a toaster does.
(Correctio) qualifies a statement by recalling it (or part of it) and expressing it in a better, milder, or stronger way. EX: Ollie was the best of all dogs, nay of all pets.) FYI: Ollie was my dog. He is in heaven now.
A direct comparison between dissimilar things. "Your eyes are stars" is an example.
A figure of speech in which a representative term is used for a larger idea (EX: "The pen is mightier than the sword").
A speech given by one character (Hamlet's "To be or not to be...").
This term has two distinct technical meanings in English writing. The first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The indicative ______ is used for only factual sentences. For example, "Joe eats too quickly." The subjunctive ______is used for a doubtful or conditional attitude. For example, "If I were you, I'd get another job." The imperative _______is used for commands. For example, "Shut the door!" the second meaning of the word is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the ______. In this usage, ______is similar to tone and atmosphere.
The repetition or variations of an image or idea in a work used to develop theme or characters. EX: The red letter "A" in The Scarlet Letter.
The speaker of a literary work.
Words that sound like the sound they represent (hiss, gurgle, pop).
An image of contradictory term (bittersweet, pretty ugly, jumbo shrimp).
A story that operates on more than one level and usually teaches a moral lesson. (Nathaniel Hawthorne's Young Goodman Brown falls into this category or genre).
A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. The first scene of Macbeth, for example, closes with the witches' cryptic remark "Fair is foul, and foul is fair...."
Parallelism, also parallel construction or parallel structure. Frequently, this works as an organizing force to attract the reader's attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide a musical rhythm.
This term comes from Greek roots meaning "beside one another." It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. This can involve, but is not limited to, repetition of a grammatical element such as a preposition or verbal phrase. A famous example of parallelism begins Charles Dickens's novel A Tale of Two Cities: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity..."
Surprise or unexpected ending of a phrase or series. EX: "The early bird gets the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese."