78 terms

Semester 2 Exam Study Guide - Knol


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Franklin D. Roosevelt
developed New Deal plans to help the Great Depression
Herbert Hoover
blamed for making the depression worse and had shantytowns named after him
Joe McCarthy
accused many government officials of being communists
Ronald Reagan
Republican president from 1981-1988. He is associated with SDI (Star Wars)
Richard Nixon
Republican president from 1969 -1975. He is associated with Detente, going to China, and visiting Moscow
Theodore Roosevelt
Leader of volunteer soldiers During the Spanish American War, and supporter of "big stick" diplomacy
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General that oversaw the rounding up of suspected radicals during the first red scare
Warren Harding
Republican President from Ohio and had a lot of corruption in his cabinet
Marcus Garvey
leader of the "Back to Africa Movement"
Charles Lindbergh
first man to fly non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean from New York to Paris, France. He became the biggest celebrity of the 1920s
Sinking of The U.S.S. Maine
Event that was hyped up by yellow journalists and led to the U.S. declaring war on Spain
Monroe Doctrine
U.S. foreign policy statement that said the U.S. would control the Americas and intervene if any European Powers interfered
The Roosevelt Corollary
amendment to the Monroe Doctrine asserted that the U.S. would act as "debt police" in Latin America for European powers
US foreign policy in 1890s
US went from isolationism to imperialism
Location of American Sugar growers revolt in hopes of being annexed by the U.S. but instead were ousted by the monarch Queen Liliuokalani
17th Amendment
direct election of U.S. Senators
16th Amendment
created a Federal income Tax
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote
Upton Sinclair
author that exposed the negative practices of the meat packing industry and inspired the government to end laissez faire practices by instituting reform
Populist Party
helped farmers in the 1890's and would later become the roots for the progressive movement
journalists who educated Americans about the evils of industrialization and inspired reform
neutral at the start of WWI
Archduke Franz Joseph Ferdinand
assassination caused Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia and started WW I
alliance system
resulted in Europe forming two major blocs and meant that war between two countries would end up being between many countries
The Fourteen Points
Woodrow Wilson's idealistic wish list for world peace after WW I
Causes of WWI
Germany's resumption of unrestricted warfare and the Zimmermann Note
League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson's only idea that was included in the treaty that ended WW I
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
displayed the biases of nativism on a national scale in the 1920s
made the rise of the KKK II possible
New Deal
changed the way our government responded to economic troubles by having the government spend more money to stimulate the economy instead of laissez-faire policies
Agricultural Adjustment Association (AAA)
New Deal programs was intended to create scarcity to drive prices back up
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
New Deal program that provided jobs in many fields including Art, construction, and history
Federal Deposit Insurance Incorporation (FDIC)
New Deal program for the banking industry to prevent customers from losing money if a bank went out of business
"Big Three" during WW II
Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, FDR
Axis Powers WWII
Germany, Italy, Japn
date that WW II officially started
supported the "Double V" Campaign
OPA (Office of Price Administration)
ran a rationing program
Tehran Conference
first wartime meeting of the "Big Three"; met to discuss the strategy of the war and the possibility of opening a western front
Potsdam Conference
did NOT contain the original "Big Three"; held after Germany surrendered, but before Japan did
Tuskegee Airmen
African American male pilots during World War II
EO 9066
order issued by FDR authorized the internment of Japanese, Italian, and German Americans
FOREIGN POLICY of the U.S. government during the Cold War? It was originally suggested by George F. Kennan.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
failed attempt by U.S. CIA operatives to overthrow Fidel Castro
Korean War
consisted of Northern Communists invading Southern Non-Communists, NATO forces intervening, Chinese troops intervening, and resulted in the country being divided into two nations along the 38th parallel
Vietnam War
consisted of Northern Communists invading Southern Non-Communists, Southern communist guerrilla forces, contained the Tet Offensive and resulted in the country becoming entirely communist
END of the Cold War
Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and Break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991
Red Scare Events
Hollywood actors, directors, and writers were imprisoned and blacklisted for their association with Communism; John S. Service, and other State Department officials were accused of being Communist and released from their jobs; School children were taught what to do in the case of a Nuclear attack; Joe McCarthy was censured in the Senate after making accusations about the U.S. Army
24th Amendment
ended poll taxes in the U.S. in 1964
Voting Rights Act 1965
end to all voter discrimination providing federal enforcement of the 15th Amendment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
ended discrimination in employment and in public places
The Military
first institution to integrate in the U.S. after EO 9981
SNCC (Student non-violent coordination committee)
civil rights group used civil disobedience to protest for African American civil rights and consisted of a mostly young membership focusing on voter education and sit-ins
James Meredith
First African American student at Ole Miss, planned a solo march against fear to raise voter registration
Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ)
Former U.S. Senator from Texas, a "New Deal" Democrat who Assumed the Presidency after JFK's Assassination. He was re-elected President in 1964. He is associated with the Great Society and the War on Poverty.
Great Society
The term for legislation and programs puished by LBJ urging social reforms including medicare, head start, education reforms, and the war on poverty.
a government program that guarantees basic emergency health care to Americans over the age of 65. It was a part of the Great Society.
Higher Education Act of 1965
Legislation form the Great Society that provided minority scholarships, and low-interest student loans for post-secondary education.
War on Poverty
forty programs that were intended to eliminate poverty by improving living conditions and enabling people to lift themselves out of the cycle of poverty. Included the Food Stamp Act of 1964
Head Start
program for four- and five-year-old children from disadvantaged families that gave them a chance to start school on an even basis with other youngsters.
Richard Nixon
Conservative Republican President Elected in 1968 and 1972. He Coined the phrase "Silent majority" in response ot war protests. He was the first president to visit red China and Moscow. His theory of Vietnamization of the Vietnam War ended U.S. involvement in the conflict. He was implicated in the Watergate scandal.
Kent State Massacre
Anti-war demonstration on campus. On May 4, 1970 members of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of Kent State University demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine students. The event triggered a nationwide student strike that forced hundreds of colleges and universities to close. It symbolized the deep political and social divisions that so sharply divided the country during the Vietnam War era
The Watergate Complex is a group of five buildings that contain offices, apartments and a hotel. In 1972 the Democratic National Committee Headquarters was located on the sixth floor of the Office Building. Those offices were burglarized, documents were photographed, and telephones were wiretapped. Evidence found on the burglars linked them to Nixon. He tried to cover-up his involvement by refusing to allow Congress to listen to the recordings of his private meetings.
The Supreme Court, after U.S. v. Nixon, ordered that Nixon release the tapes. It was discovered that Nixon had used the FBI, CIA, and IRS to bug the offices of political opponents and harass activist groups. The evidence made it obvious that Nixon would be impeached by the House and convicted by the Senate. August 9, 1974 Nixon Resigned the Presidency
Spiro T. Agnew
Richard Nixon's Vice President. Convicted of accepting bribes while in previous political offices. Agreed to resign as Vice President in 1973
Gerald Ford
Former House Minority Leader who was Appointed Vice President in 1973. He Became President after Nixon's resignation August 9, 1974. He was the Only President to not be elected in any way. On September 8, 1974 He Pardoned Nixon.
Jimmy Carter
Former Democratic Governor of Georgia. His 1976 campaign against Gerald Ford promised truth in government (after Watergate). He was Elected president in 1976. He created two new cabinet departments, Energy and Education. Economically, "stagflation" persisted during his presidency
High inflation, high unemployment, slow economic growth
Iran Hostage Crisis
Lasting 444 days (November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981) the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran
Sixty-six American diplomats and citizens were held hostage by student supporters of the Islamist Iranian Revolution in Retaliation to Carter giving the Shah of Iran asylum in the U.S.
Canadian Caper
The term for the CIA operation that rescued 6 escaped hostages from Iran by pretending to be a film crew scouting the location for a science fiction movie named Argo.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Formed in 1960 to keep prices stabile. Twelve member countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, UAE, Algeria, Angola, Libya, Nigeria, Ecuador, and Venezuela. OnOctober 1973, OPEC declared an oil embargo in response to the United States' and Western Europe's support of Israel. The result was a rise in oil prices from $3 per barrel to $12 Gas rationing in the U.S. resulted in lines at the pump. Congress issuing a 55 mph limit at the end of 1973 OPEC nations discovered that their oil could be used as both a political and economic weapon against other nations. 1973 oil embargo was a global economic recession. Unemployment rose to the highest percentage on record while inflation also spiked.
Camp David Accords
Peace meeting between Egypt and Israel Conducted by Jimmy Carter and Signed September 17, 1978
Humphrey Hawkins Full Employment Act 1978
Legislation aimed at ending stagflation and improving the economy. Sets up modern monetary policy. Provided specific goals: Unemployment should not exceed 3 percent for people 20 years or older, inflation should be reduced to 3 percent or less, provided that its reduction would not interfere with the employment goal by 1988, the inflation rate should be zero, again provided that pursuing this goal would not interfere with the employment goal.
Rust Belt
Term used for the once powerful industrial Northeast and Great Lakes manufacturing cities
They declined in the 1970s and 1980s due to the transfer of manufacturing to other regions and increased use of manufacturing and increased global competition.
Three mile Island
A partial nuclear meltdown in PA on March 28,1979. It was the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history
Strengthened the arguments of anti-nuclear activists. It Resulted in increased nuclear regulation.
Conservative revival
uniting of political and economic conservatives of the "old right" with supporters of the tax-revolt movement and with evangelical Christians of the "new right." The channeling of these forces into a new conservative coalition, plus a distrust of government born of a generation of chaos produced America's "turn to the right" in 1980. It led to Ronald Reagan's victory in the presidential election of that year
Ronald Reagan
Actor from 1937-1964, Governor of CA 1967-1975, and Conservative Republican. Won the presidential election in 1980 and 1984. He practiced Supply-side economics and advocated
reducing tax rates to spur economic growth,
controlling the money supply to reduce inflation,
deregulation of the economy, and reducing government spending.
Sandra Day O'Connor
Appointed by Ronald Reagan to the Supreme Court in 1981. She was the 1st Female Supreme Court Justice.
Iran Contra Scandal
Members of the Reagan administration sold weapons to Iran, hoping to get Iran to release more hostages. They used the money form the arms sale to fund the efforts of revolutionaries in Nicaragua called Contras. Reagan was never proven to know about it.