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242 terms

MAN 4240 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE part 1 T/F

True/False on worksheets 1-15 and exams 1-4
STUDY
PLAY
Workforce diversity potentially improves decision making and team performance on complex tasks
T
According to the systems perspective, most organizations have one working part rather than many sub-components
F
Social entities are called organizations only when their members have complete agreement on the goals they want to achieve
F
Values represent an individual's short-term beliefs about what will happen in the future
F
Work/life balance refers to minimizing conflict between work and non-work demands
T
One way organizations can retain intellectual capital is to have high employee turn around
F
The field of organizational behavior relies on qualitative rather than quantitative research to understand organizational phenomena
F
All organizations have a collective sense of purpose, whether it's producing oil or creating the fastest Internet search engine
T
Counterproductive work behaviors include threats and work avoidance
T
People born between 1946 and 1964 are referred to as Generation X Employees
F
Situational factors are working conditions within the employee's control
F
Agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness are three of the 'Big Five' personality dimensions
T
Mature adults tend to have a single unitary self-concept that remains relatively stable
F
Self-enhancement can result in bad decisions
T
Ethically sensitive people recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue
T
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the personality traits described by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
T
Ethics experts say that the most effective way to ensure that employees engage in ethical behavior is to introduce ethical codes of conduct
F
Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Jung's psychological types is inconclusive
T
According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, some people are 'sensing-thinking' types whereas others may be 'intuitive-feeling' types
T
Personality is a relatively stable pattern of behaviors and internal states that explains a person's behavioral tendencies
T
Categorical thinking is mostly a conscious process of deciding what information in the environment to notice
F
According to social learning theory, people can reinforce their own behavior
T
Self-fulfilling prophecy tends to have a stronger effect on employees who are new to the job than on employees who have worked in that job for a few years
T
The primacy effect causes interviewers to ignore information presented at the beginning of the interview and to pay more attention to information presented later in the interview
F
A person's social identity is a complex combination of his or her memberships in many groups
F
Diversity awareness programs mainly educate employees about the value of diversity and the problems with stereotyping
T
One problem with stereotyping is that few traits assigned to a particular social category accurately describe every person identified with that group
T
The first step in a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when the observer acts differently towards people with whom he or she has high expectations than towards those with whom he or she has low expectations than towards those with whom he or she has low expectations
F
Continuous reinforcement provides the most rapid learning of the targeted behavior
T
Organizational learning is not dependent on individual learning since it mostly involves the organization managing its own knowledge- based assets
F
Job sharing and telework are usually considered ways to reduce stress through work/life balance
T
Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's wellbeing
T
the four dimensions of emotional intelligence form a hierarchy
T
Research concludes that when our emotions and logical analysis of a situation conflict with each other, we should follow our emotions
F
The latest organizational behavior evidence concludes that happy workers are more productive workers to some extent
T
Display rules are norms that require employees to show certain emotions and to withhold others
T
Compared with other countries, Hungarian employees have above average levels of job satisfaction
F
Emotional intelligence is a set of abilities
T
Attitudes develop from our emotional experiences as wells as from the perceptual process
T
Job satisfaction is an ethical issue that influences the organization's reputation in the community
T
In order for something to be called an organization it must have buildings and equipment
F
An important principle in organizational behavior is that OB theories should never be used to predict or influence organizational events
F
Everyone is a manager
T
Organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use and store valuable knowledge
T
Values guide an individual but are not an important subject within an organization
F
Counterproductive work behaviors are voluntary
T
Research has found that absenteeism is rarely, if ever, caused by situational factors
F
Sensing, feeling, and judging are three of the 'Big Five' personality traits
F
Personality is completely determined by heredity
F
The perceptual process begins by attributing behavior to internal or external causes
F
Homogenization and differentiation are two activities in the process of forming and maintaining our social identity
T
Stereotyping is an extension of the social identity process
T
Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs whenever supervisors accurately predict the future of performance of recently hired employees
F
Tacit knowledge is mainly learned through observation and experience
T
People are consciously aware of most emotions they experience
F
Emotions are communications to ourselves, which serve to put us in a state of readiness
T
Emotional intelligence tends to increase with age
T
It is reasonable to conclude from recent surveys that nearly all employees in the United States are truly very satisfied with their jobs
F
The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance would likely be stronger if more organizations provided valued rewards for good performance
T
Organizational commitment refers to an employee's contractual obligation to provide a minimum amount of time and effort to the organization in return for a fair day's pay from the organization
F
Eustress refers to the short-term causes of stress, whereas distress refers to long-term causes
F
One of the most common consequences of over reward inequity is that overpaid employees try to increase their inputs by working harder
F
To determine the fairness of pay or other outcomes, people almost always rely on the equity principle
T
Needs Hierarchy Theory explains how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources
F
Maslow is credited for bringing a mechanistic perspective to the study of motivation
F
People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that require them to mediate conflicts
T
Over reward inequity occurs whenever other people receive less money than you do
F
Most employers say that nowadays motivating employees is more challenging that it used ot be
T
One of the most significant discoveries in Equity Theory research is that people tend to keep the same comparison throughout their working lives
F
Distributive justice increases directly with the extent that the decision allows voice, can be appealed, and has an unbiased decision maker
F
According to equity theory, employees feel inequity only when other people receive higher salaries than they do
F
Motivator-Hygiene Theory highlights the idea that job content is an important source of employee motivation
T
Adam Smith introduced the principles of Scientific Management
F
Forming natural work units tends to increase task identity and task significance
T
People with a high power distance give money a low priority in their lives
F
Some critics argue that financial rewards discourage creativity and distract employees from the meaningfulness of the work itself.
T
Mental imagery helps us to anticipate and work out solutions to potential obstacles in our work
T
Job specialization usually reduces the employee's work efficiency
F
Self-leadership borrows ideas from social learning theory and research in sports psychology on constructive thought processes
T
Job enlargement increases skill variety
T
Scientific Management is the process of systematically dividing work into its smallest possible elements and standardizing work activities to achieve maximum efficiency
T
When in a positive mood, people pay more attention to details and follow a non programmed decision routine
F
Creativity tends to suffer during times of downsizing and corporate restructuring
T
The decision maker's emotions play an important role in his or her identification of a problem or opportunity
T
ill-defined problems require a non-programed decision process
T
Employees are more likely to be committed to implementing a solution when they are involved in making the decision
T
Creative people value self- direction, but also have a strong need to follow rules
F
Employee involvement potentially improves decision making quality and commitment
T
The ideas that form during the insight stage of creativity need to be verified through conscious evaluation and experimentation
T
Scenario planning is a structured process that helps decision makers explore potential problems and choose the best solutions under different future conditions
T
Escalation of commitment occurs when employees increase their support for a decision because most of their colleagues also support that decision
F
Employees are more motivated in teams because they are accountable to fellow team members who also monitor their performance
T
Our desire for informal groups is mostly influenced by our drive to defend
F
Task forces are temporary groups that typically investigate a particular problem and disband when the decision is made
T
Social loafing is more common among people with collectivist values
F
Team roles are typically negotiated among team members
F
Teams are groups with some degree of task interdependence and a common objective
T
The longer team members work together, the better they develop common mental models to help them complete the work together
T
Team cohesiveness decreases with increased interaction because there are more chances for conflicts to emerge
F
Teams are groups of two or more people who have equal influence over each other regarding the team's goals and means of achieving those goals
F
Team members are held together by their interdependence and need for collaboration to achieve common goals
T
In the context of motivation, drives are also called primary needs, fundamental needs, or innate needs
T
ERG theory recognizes three learned needs: achievement, affiliation, and power
F
The stronger your needs, the less motivated you are to fulfill them
F
According to Learned Needs Theory, companies should hire leaders with a strong need for personalized power
F
People with a high need for affiliation tend to be more effective in jobs that allocate scarce resources among employees
F
Equity Theory research has found that employees who feel over rewarded tend to alter their perceptions of inputs and outcomes rather than attempt to actually change them
T
The idea behind 360- degree feedback is that employees should receive feedback for 360 continuous days
F
According to Four-drive Theory, three drives are proactive (i.e. we actively seek to fulfill them) whereas the drive to defend is reactive (i.e. activated only in reaction to threat).
T
Feelings of procedural injustice produce anger, which, in turn, generates either withdrawal or aggression
T
Job evaluation mainly supports the competency approach to rewards
F
Job specialization increases work efficiency, but it tends to reduce employee motivation
T
Compared with women, men give money a lower priority in their lives
F
Self-leadership involves finding ways to increase job specialization
F
The philosophy behind Scientific Management is to increase job enrichment and decrease job specialization
F
Employees assembling complete computer modems would have higher task identity than those assembling only one component and passing it along to others for further assembly
T
Gainsharing and share-ownership reward plans create an "ownership culture" that is good for owners, but bad for employees
F
Satisficing occurs when people continue on a failing course of action
F
Intuition is the main strategy to minimize escalation of commitment
F
Employee involvement potentially improves decision-making quality and commitment
T
Creative people tend to have a high need for social approval
F
The rational choice paradigm assumes that decision makers have limited information- processing capabilities and engage in a limited search for alternatives
F
Bounded rationality adopts the main assumptions of the rational choice paradigm of decision making
F
All groups are teams, but some types of teams are not groups
F
Self-directed work teams plan, organize, and control activities with little or no direct involvement of supervisors
t
Virtual teams are usually permanent functional groups that communicate mainly through weekly face-to face meetings
F
Students experience pooled interdependence when they are lined up at the laser printers trying to get their assignments done just before a class deadline
T
Flaming refers to the capacity of an organization to transmit information more quickly through computer networks than through traditional paper media
F
The encoding and decoding process is enhanced when both parties have similar "passbooks."
F
Multi-communicating is possible because of the reduced sensory demand for most forms of computer-mediated communication
T
Management by walking around occurs whenever senior executives get out of their offices and communicate face- face with employees
T
Empathy, emotional contagion, and anger are three types of noise in the communication process
F
In the communication process model, encoding the message refers to selecting the appropriate medium and sending your ideas through that medium.
F
According to the communication process model, communication begins with forming the message, then encoding it.
T
The image used in the communication process model is that information is like fruit on a tree that needs to be picked
F
Omitting and buffering strategies help employees to reduce the amount of information they must process (i.e. information load)
T
The three components of listening are encoding, decoding and interpreting
F
Upward appeal is not considered a type of influence tactic
F
Soft influence tactics such as persuasion tend to build compliance rather than commitment to the influencer's request
F
Extreme forms of assertiveness include blackmailing colleagues
T
Organizational politics refers to any use of power to influence others
F
Women have difficulty getting into senior management because they are usually exclude from make networks
T
First-line supervisors may have legitimate, reward and coercive sources of power, but their actual power is often limited by lack of discretion
T
Negotiation and the norm of reciprocity are associated with the influence process of exchange
T
Professions gain power in the marketplace by reducing their substitutability through the control of tasks and knowledge
T
Exaggerating one's resume is categorized within the influence strategy of persuassion
F
Networking helps to increase a person's expert power and centrality
T
Mergers and acquisitions tend to increase conflict due to different values and beliefs
T
Negotiators share information more fully by adopting a win-lose orientation
F
Conflict begins when two parties experience manifest conflict
F
Communication problems partly explain why conflict is more likely to occur in a multicultural workforce
T
Although constructive conflict can degenerate into relationship conflict, it is easy to prevent this from happening
F
Poor work ethic is one of the main sources of conflict between Baby-boomer and Generation-X employees
F
Conflict occurs when one party perceives that its interest are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
T
Communication and understanding interventions should be applied only after differentiation between the parties has been reduced
T
Conflict is more likely to occur between two departments with pooled interdependence than reciprocal interdependence
F
Moderate levels of conflict produce improved decision-making
T
Charismatic leadership refers more to leader behaviors whereas transformational leadership refers mainly to personal traits that provide referent power over followers
F
Implicit leadership theory explains difference in leadership practices across cultures
T
Transactional leaders are mainly change agents
F
The behavioral and contingency leadership theory adopt more of a transactional and less of a transformational perspective of leadership.
T
Self-leadership replaces the need for formal leadership in self-directed work teams
T
Reward systems and employee's skills are substitutes for task- oriented leadership
T
Servant leadership occurs when employees believe that their energy is put into serving their leader rather than accomplishing organizational objectives
F
Many view charismatic leadership as being the highest degree of transformational leadership
T
Research indicates that university students value task- oriented instructors over people-oriented instructors
T
Cultural values shape the expectations that followers have of their leaders
T
The introduction of email in organizations tends to reduce some face-to-face and telephone communication but increase the flow of information to higher levels in the organization
T
Social networking sites such as Facebook provide employers with more efficient communication than traditional email systems
F
Media richness refers to the financial cost of using the medium relative to its frequency of use in the organization
F
Jargon improves communication efficiency when both the sender and receiver understand this specialized language
T
Research has found that women are generally more sensitive than are men to nonverbal communication
T
One dilemma in workplace design is the requirement to balance the need to encourage social interaction with the employees' need for privacy
T
Employees with low power distance are more likely to comply with legitimate power
F
Peer pressure typically represents a form of coercive power
T
The right to control information flow in the organization is a form of legitimate power
T
A good strategy for women who want to network is to learn how to play golf
T
Persuasion is the most common form of influence in high power distance cultures
F
Organizational politics tend to increase in situations where decisions become routine and programmed
F
People with an internal locus of control and strong Machiavellian values are more likely to engage in organizational politics
T
The view that conflict in organizations is bad is overly simplistic and in some cases incorrect
T
If conflict was eliminated, organizations would be more productive
F
Constructive conflict is more likely to escalate into relationship conflict among employees in highly cohesive teams
F
Buffers tend to resolve conflict by reducing the level of interdependence between the conflicting parties
T
Negotiators tend to be more competitive and less willing to give concessions when their audience directly observes the negotiations
T
ADR usually beings with meeting between employee and employer
T
Shared leadership is the view that anyone in the organization may be a leader in various ways and at various times
T
Effective leaders have "leadership motivation"; that is, they are motivated to be leaders
T
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership, people oriented leadership is associated with higher employee performance and better team dynamics
F
Research indicates that male and female leaders do not differ in their levels of task-oriented and people oriented leadership
T
Informal communication is a coordination mechanism only in a small and few medium-sized organizations
F
Conflict and ambiguity associated with the matrix structure causes some employees to experience more stress
T
Informal communication as a coordinating mechanism is ineffective in non-routine situations
F
Organizations tend to become less formalized as they age and grow in number of employees
F
Companies can be centralized in some parts of the organization and decentralized in other parts
T
A problem with the divisional organizational structure is that it does not allow the organization to grown within the structure
F
The two fundamental requirements of all organizational structures are divsionalization and decentralization
F
One of the main advantages of network structures is that they ensure the core organization has a high degree of control over production, marketing and other functions
F
Team-based organizational structures are usually found within larger divisionalized structures
T
An organization's structure is mainly its organizational chart
F
Organizational socialization does not occur until a person becomes a member of the organization
F
Artifacts refer mainly to the paintings and other tangible objects that appear throughout the organization
F
Organizational culture consists of the values and assumptions shared within an organization which also dictates the correct way of thinking about and acting on problems and opportunities facing the organization
T
According to the attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) theory, alignment with the company's culture is often a factor when deciding which applicant to hire
T
One problem with a strong organizational culture is that it increases conflict among employees within the company and makes it more difficult for them to understand each other
F
Employees are more likely to quit if values incongruence is sufficiently low
F
Language reflects an organization's dominant values but not the values of its subcultures
F
Ceremonies are more formal artifacts than rituals
T
Values represent the deepest part of an organization's culture
F
New employees learn corporate culture through the process of organizational socialization
T
One problem with negotiation is that it tends to produce compliance rather than commitment to the change process
T
Successful change requires a well articulated and appealing vision of the desired future state
T
Change agents should apply the action research model if they want to help people to break out of a problem- solving mentality and, instead, reframe relationships around the positive and possible
T
Compared with quantum change, incremental change interventions involve less risk to the organization and tend to produce less resistance among affected employees
T
Action research adopts the emerging philosophy of positive organizational behavior
F
By creating a sense of urgency for change, change agents are motivating employees to change towards the new conditions
T
Pilot projects are usually more flexible and less risky than centralized, organization-wide programs
T
Coaching and other forms of learning reduce resistance to change mainly by helping employees break previous routines and develop new role patterns
T
Coercion should never be used to manage change in organizations
F
One reason why employees resist change is that they dislike predictable role patterns
F
When work is divided among people, a coordinating mechanism is needed to ensure that everyone works in concert
T
Integrator roles increase informal communication as a coordinating mechanism
T
Job descriptions, goal setting, and training are applications of coordination through standardization
T
Standardization process is less effective in non-routine and complex work
T
Generally, a narrow span of control is necessary where employees perform highly interdependent work with others
T
The main reasons why companies are moving toward a flatter organizational structure are because it improves coordination through formal hierarchy
F
A mechanistic structure is decentralized, has a narrow span of control and little formalization
F
Departmentalization establishes interdependencies and coordination through informal communication within each work unit
T
Values represent an important invisible part of an organizations culture
T
Espoused values are values proclamations
T
Organizational countercultures further strengthen the organization's dominant culture
F
Artifacts of organizational culture may include the building's design, the way people are greeted and the food served in the companies cafeteria
T
Organizations with very strong cultures may become dysfunctional because the suppress dissenting subcultural values
T
Compared to other strategies for merging two organizations, assimilation is most likely to result in a culture clash
F
The separation strategy is most appropriate when the merging companies are unrelated industries
T
Employee resistance to change mos often takes the form of overt work behaviors
F
An emerging view of employee resistance to change is that it is a resource rather than impediment to change in modern organizations
T
Unfreezing occurs by making the driving forces stronger, weakening the restraining forces, or combination of both
T
Most change agents are external consultants rather than corporate executives
F
Quantum change is most commonly applied in conjunction with employee involvement
F
Discovery, dreaming, and delivering are the first three stages of appreciative inquire
F
A parallel learning structure is an organizational change intervention in which a social structure is constructed alongside the formal hierarchy to increase the organization's learning
T