refers to the processes by which families, communities and societies react to inter- cultural contact while retaining characteristics of own culture. As a result a new, compos ite culture emerges, in which some existing cultural features are combined, some are lost, and new features appear. The earliest recorded western discussion of acculturation appears to be that of Plato in 348 BC. More than 100 different taxonomies of acculturation have been formulated since then. See also adaptation, assimilation, enculturation, syncretism and transculturation. Generally, Scientists use the term " culture" for the capacity to classify, codify and communicate experiences symbolically. Primatologists like Jane Goodall have shown that primates also show aspects of culture. was a system of racial segregation used in South Africa from 1948 to the early 1990s. Though first used in 1917 by Jan Smuts, the future Prime Minister of South Africa, apartheid was simply an extension of the segregationist policies of previous white governments in South Africa.The term originates in Afrikaans or Dutch, where it means "separateness". Races, classified by law into White, Black, Indian, and Coloured groups, were separated, each with their own homelands and institutions. This prevented non-white people from having a vote or influence on the governance. Education, medical care and other public services available to non-white people were vastly inferior and non-whites were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in those areas designated as 'White South Africa'. The shared values, norms, traditions, customs, art s, history, folklore and institutions of a group of people. "Integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that is both a result of and integral to the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations." The etymological root of the word is from the Latin 'colere' which means to cultivate, from which is derived 'cultus', that which is cultivated or fashioned. In comparison of words such as "Kultur" and "Zivilisation" in German, "culture" and civilisation" in English, and "culture" and "civilisation" in French the concepts reveal very different perspectives. The meaning of these concepts is however, converging across languages as a result of international contacts, cultural exchanges and other information processes. Dimensions of diversity in humans includes, but is not limited to: culture, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, geography, lifestyle, education, income, health, physical appearance, pigmentation, language, personality, beliefs, faith, dreams, interests, aspirations, skills, professions, perceptions, and experiences. Treatment or consideration based on class or category defined by prejudicial attitudes and beliefs rather than individual merit. The denial of equal treatment, civil liberties and opportunities to education, accommodation, health care, employment and acces s. In many countries discrimination by law consists of making unjust distinctions based on: Religion, political affiliation, marital or family status Age, sexual orientation, gender, race, colour, nationality Physical, developmental or mental disability State organized discriminations are universal only in mild forms e.g. non-citizens are excluded from health-care, unemployment support or study support. Extreme cases such as apartheid in South Africa, racial segregation in the USA and anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany are not very common. Normative attempts by governments to reduce discrimination include equal opportunity laws, civil rights legislation and state policies of affirmative action. The concept of diversity means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing individual differences along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. Primary dimensions are those that cannot be changed e.g., age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities/qualities, race and sexual orientation. Secondary dimensions of diversity are those that can be changed, e.g., educational background, geographic location, income, marital status, parental status, religious beliefs, and work role/experiences. Diversity or diversity management includes,therefore, knowing how to relate to those qualities and conditions that are different from our own and outside the groups to which we belong. Group characterised by cultural similarities (shared among members of that group) and differences (between that group and others). Members of an ethnic group share beliefs, values, habits, customs, norms, a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship, and/or race. Human rights refers to the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans irrespective of countries, cultures, politics, languages, skin colour and religions are entitled. Examples of human rights are the right to life and liberty, freedom of expressi on, and equality before the law, the right to participate in culture, the right to work, the right to hold religious beliefs without persecution, and to not be enslaved, or imprisoned without charge and the right to education. is a theoretical concept introduced by Richard Dawkins, in his book The Selfish Gene in 1976. Meme is derived from a shortening of the Greek "mimeme" (something imitated) and shortened so that it sounds similar to "gene". Meme refers to any unit of cultural information, such as a cultural practice, idea or concept, which one mind transmits (verbally or by demonstration) to anothe r mind. Examples of cultural memes are thoughts, ideas, theories, opinions, beliefs, moods, poetry, habits, dance, tunes, catch-phrases, fashions, ways of building arches. Memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process broadly called imitation very similarly how genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leading from body to body via sperm or eggs. A list of memetic concepts can be found here.