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MAN 4240 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE part 2 MC

All multiple choice questions from worksheets 1-15 and exams 1-4, excluding 2 questions that were given
STUDY
PLAY
- is the study of what people, feel, and do in and around organizations
OB
Which of the following statements about the field of organizational behavior is FALSE?
OB is a self-contained discipline, independent of other disciplines
Which organizational behavior perspective discusses inputs, outputs, and feedback?
Open systems
Knowledge management is an extension of:
The open systems perspective of organizational behavior
Intellectual capital refers to :
the stock knowledge that resides in an organization
The perspective that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital is called
HPWP
- refers to the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad
Ethics
Employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties:
Are called organizational citizenship behaviors
Generous sick leave policies are known to:
Increase absenteeism
- refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world
Globalization
All of these factors directly influence an employee's voluntary behavior and performance EXCEPT:
Moral intensity
Which of the following refers to the fact that motivation is goal-directed, not random?
Direction
Ability includes which of these?
Aptitudes and learned skills
Which of these refers to a person's beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation?
Role perceptions
Travel Happy Corp. gives simple accounts to newly hired employees, and then adds more challenging accounts as employees master the simple tasks. This practice mainly :
increases person-job matching
The 'Big Five' personality dimensions represent:
the aggregated clusters representing most known personality traits
Neuroticism is explicitly identified in:
big five personality dimensions
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) includes all of these EXCEPT:
Internal/ external locus
Which of the following statements about values is FALSE?
A person's hierarchy of values typically changes a few times each year
All of the following are domains in Schwartz's values model EXCEPT:
conscientiousness
Selective attention is a component of :
the perceptual process
Our likelihood of noticing a person or object depends on its:
all of the above: size, motion, intensity, novelty
The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category refers to :
stereotyping
Prejudice and discrimination are most closely tied to which of these concepts?
Stereotyping
The statement "First impressions are lasting impressions" best represents the premises of :
Primacy effect
In organizational setting empathy:
does all of the above
Which of the following is NOT explicitly identified in the Johari Windo?
Selective attention
Which of the following is/are acquired mainly through observation and experience?
Tacit knowledge
Receiving a bonus after successfully completing an important project is an example of which of the following?
Positive reinforcement
Receiving a commission only when a sale is made represents
a variable ratio schedule
Which of the following statements about emotions is FALSE?
We continuously experience an emotion for days or weeks at a time
Anger, Fear, joy and sadness represent:
Types of emotions
Which of the following is NOT usually identified as a category of emotions?
Perceived
the uncomfortable tension felt when our behavior and attitudes are inconsistent with each other is called:
cognitive dissonance
Which of these statement about emotional labor is FALSE?
Research indicates that emotional display rules and standards are very similar around the world
Emotional intelligence is best described as:
A set of abilities
Emotional intelligence includes the ability to
Do all of the above
Relationship management is:
the highest level of emotional intelligence
In national polls,- percent of Americans have been satisfied with their jobs for the past decade or more
More than 85
The concept of affective organizational commitment includes:
All of the above
Which of these refers to the perspective that companies take their sustenance from the environment and, in turn, affect that environment through their outputs?
Open system
The topic of ethics is most closely associated with:
Values
- refers to an organizations moral obligation toward all of its stakeholders
CSR
The triple bottom line philosophy says that:
Companies should try to support the economic, social, and environmental spheres of sustainability
Organizational citizenship refers to:
employee behaviors that extend beyond normal job duties
Employees, suppliers and governments:
are organizational stakeholders
Which of the following is a form of knowledge acquisition?
Experimentation
Globalization occurs when an organization
increases its connectivity
Which of these factors directly influences an employee's voluntary behavior and performance
Only A and B, Motivation and Role perceptions
Aptitudes, skills, and competencies all fall under which of the following concepts
Ability
The relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies refers to
Personality
Which 'Big Five' personality dimension is most valuable for predicting job performance?
Conscientiousness
Schwartz's model organizes - into-.
Values, ten broader domains
Which of the following statements about cross-cultural values is TRUE?
People with high individualism can have any level (high or low) of collectivism
Ethics is most closely related to:
Values
The ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue is known as
ethical sensitivity
-is the process of filtering information received by our senses
selective attention
George believes that women have difficulty coping with the stress of executive decisions. Sally is promoted into a senior management position and George soon complains that Sally won't be able to cope with this job. George is exhibiting which of the following perceptual errors?
Stereotyping
What perceptual error occurs when a supervisor incorrectly rates an employee at a similar level across all performance dimensions based on an overall impression of that employee?
Halo effect
the objective of the Johari Window is to
Do all of the above
The A-B-C model of behavior modification helps us to :
understand how environmental factors influence learning and behavior
Behavioral modeling and self reinforcement are components of
social learning theory
Co-workers no longer praise you when you engage in dangerous pranks, so you stop engaging in these pranks
extinction
- involves modifying behavior to be consistent with required emotions but continuing to hold different internal feelings
Surface acting
Which of these statements about job satisfaction and customer satisfaction is TRUE?
Both B and C are true, satisfied employees have a more positive mood, which communicates friendliness to customers, and satisfied employees are less likely to quit, so customers receive more consistent and familiar service
When employees have higher job satisfaction they tend to
do both A' and D', provide friendlier service to customers, and provide more consistent service to customers because of their longer employment in the job
Employees who stay with an organization mainly because they believe it will cost them financially to leave, likely have:
high continuance commitment
All of these are prominent strategies for building organizational commitment EXCEPT
outsourcing
Employees with strong organizational commitment are more likely to
engage in organizational citizenship behaviors
Employees who experience feelings of inequity tend to change their comparison other:
if they can't alter the outcome/input ratio through other means
The optimal level of goal difficulty:
occurs where the goal is challenging but not impossible
In the Four drive theory, the drive- is most closely associated with the need for relative status and recognition
to acquire
Effective feedback is all of the following EXCEPT:
General
which of the following statements about drives is FALSE?
They include only basic physiological essentials, such as hunger and thirst
An individuals perceived probability that a particular level of effort will result in a particular level of performance refers to the:
E- to P expectancy
One of the main implications of Four-drive Theory is that:
employers should offer enough opportunity to keep all four drives in balance
People who are 'equity sensitive' tend to:
Want their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the outcome/input ratio of the comparison other
According to Expectancy Theory, a reward that is not wanted has:
a negative outcome valence
Voice and the right to appeal are two important practices that influence :
perceptions of procedural justice
The first step in self leadership is
personal goal setting
Which of the following is NOT an individual level performance reward?
gainsharing
Which of the following tends to create an "ownership culture" and align employee behaviors more closely to organizational objectives?
Stock option plans and employee stock ownership plans
Job evaluations are used in which type of reward system?
Job status rewards
Job enrichment usually:
None of the answers apply
Which of these factors, according to Herzberg, is a hygiene factor?
Job security
Self-leadership relies on ideas from:
All of the answers are correct
Which of the following systematically evaluates the worth of each job within the oranization?
Job evaluation
- are often "golden handcuffs" that potentially increase continuance commitment
Membership/ seniority rewards
Which of the following is most consistent with employability- namely, that employees are expected to continuously learn skills that will keep them employed?
Competency-based rewards
The rational decision making model begins with:
recognizing and defining the problem
Decision structure, risk of conflict, and decision commitment are:
contingencies of employee involvement
Satisficing refers to:
the tendency to choose an alternative that is good enough rather than the best
Which of the following is a potential problem when evaluating and choosing alternatives in decision making?
All of these are potential problems
Divergent thinking increases the level of:
creativity
Which of the following questions is NOT explicitly considered in the contingencies of employee involvement?
Do subordinates need to develop their decision-making skills?
The purely rational model of decision making is rarely practiced in reality because:
It assumes that people are efficient and logical in their information processing
The benefits of employee involvement increase with:
the novelty and complexity of the problem or opportunity
A decision maker's need to 'save face' tends to:
increase escalation of commitment
Convergent thinking mainly improves what stage of the creative process?
Convergent thinking does not improve any part of the creative process
Conforming, performing, and reforming are all
None of the above
Keeping the team size sufficiently small and designing tasks such that each team member's performance is measurable are two ways to:
minimize social loafing
An effective team member- and manages the team's work so it is performed efficiently and harmoniously.
coordinates
Which of the following allows employees to collectively plan, organize, and control work activities with little or no direct involvement of a higher- status supervisor?
Self- directed teams
Calculus, knowledge, and identification are:
three foundations of trust in teams
Informal groups:
All of the above
The Primary objective of team building is to
accelerate the team development process
According to social identity theory:
people define themselves by their group affiliations
All of the following organizational environment features potentially affects team effectiveness EXCEPT which one?
Team size
Employees tend to join a virtual or conventional team with:
a moderate or high level of trust in their new team members
In Maslow's needs hierarchy, the bottom four levels are collectively known as ---- needs, where as self-actualization is called a --- need
deficiency, growth
According to Equity Theory:
The importance of inputs and outcomes varies from one person to the next
If individuals are unable to satisfy a particular need, the ERG theory states that they:
redirect their efforts towards fulfilling a lower need in the hierarchy
Effective feedback:
none of the above
Which motivation theory is based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes?
Expectancy Theory
The distributive justice rule applies the concept of :
equity
---- produce emotions, whereas--- represent the motivational force of those emotions which are channeled toward particular goals
Drives, needs
Share option plans:
give employees the right to purchase company shares at a future date at a predetermined price
A unique feature of Herzberg's Motivator- Hygiene Theory is that it:
states that improving motivators increases job satisfaction but does not decrease job dissatisfaction
Scientific management includes which of the following?
Systematically dividing a job into its smallest possible elements and assigning these divided tasks to employees who are best qualified to perform them
Which reward system tends to discourage poor performers from voluntarily leaving the organization
Membership and seniority-based pay
Which of the following is an individual incentive?
Piece rate plans
What do impromptu storytelling, morphological analysis, and artwork have in common?
they are forms or associative play
Employee involvement tends to have which of the following benefits in decision making?
All of these statements are correct
Decision makers tend to rely on their implicit favorite when:
they evaluate decision alternatives
People tend to be more creative when:
they have a reasonable level of job security
A nonprogrammed decision is applicable in:
any nonroutine situation in which employee's must search for alternative solutions
Which of these is NOT a reason contributing to escalation of commitment?
Implicit favorites
A learning orientation is:
an important condition for creativity
A task force refers to:
any temporary team that investigates a particular problem and typically disbands when the decision is made
Groupthink is caused by:
All of these factors cause groupthink
The drive to bond and the dynamics of social identity theory both explain why people:
join informal groups
Pooled interdependence is:
the weakest form of interdependence other than complete independence
Brooks' Law says that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later. This law is mainly referring to:
process losses
---- has higher media richness than-----
Telephone, Email
When the sender has previous experience with the receiver, the sender--- to communicate in ambiguous situations
can use leaner media
Which of the following tends to be the preferred medium for coordinating work, minimizing status differences, and is an increasing source of information overload?
Email
Which of the following is NOT explicitly identified in the communication process model?
Empathy
Web-based magazines (e-zines):
allow companies to communicate breaking news quickly and efficiently to employees
Buffering, summarizing and omitting are ways to:
reduce information overload
Which of these communication channels has the highest media richness?
Video conference
What effect can jargon potentially have in organizations?
Jargon may improve communication efficiency, and other times lead to misunderstanding between sender and receiver
Which of the following activities helps us to cope with information overload?
All of the above
The three main components of active listening, in order, are:
sensing, evaluating and responding
The capacity to influence others in organizational settings is known as:
organizational power
Flattering your boss and helping co-workers with their work:
are forms of silent authority and upward appeal, respectively.
Which of these refers to the degree and nature of interdependence between the powerholder and others?
Centrality
Which of these sources of power originates mainly from the person rather than the position?
Referent power
Which of the following is one of the five main sources of power?
None of the above
Which of these refers to availability of alternatives?
Substitutability
The CEO of a large organization once commented how earlier in his career, he rented expensive artwork and displayed it in his office. 'Top management would drop by my office and immediately get a sense that I was sophisticated and professional', the CEO explained. 'I believe the artwork helped me to get promoted.' The artwork helped this executive gain power:
through visibility
Employees have more expert power today than a few decades ago because:
society is shifting from an industrial to a knowledge- based economy
Which of the following statements about power is FALSE?
Power exists only when one person has something of value for a second person, but the second person has nothing of value for the first person
Which of the following is an example of the influence tactic of forming coalitions?
A group of employees band together to show management that they collectively demand that the company purchase new computer equipment
The two main forms of conflict are
constructive and socioemotional
A win-win orientation exists when a person or team believes that:
a mutually beneficial solution may be found if both parties apply a collaborative orientation
The yielding conflict management style should be used:
when the issue is much less important to you than to the other party
In the conflict process, what immediately follows conflict perceptions and emotions?
Manifest conflict
Conflict is defined as:
a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Effective managers should:
encourage constructive conflict for better decision making and minimize relationship conflict
The potential for conflict between two employees would be highest under conditions of:
reciprocal interdependence
Which conflict management style may be necessary when it is apparent that the other party will take advantage of information sharing and other cooperative strategies?
Forcing
Increasing inventories between sequential work units tends to reduce potential conflict by:
reducing task interdependence
Effective negotiators:
set negotiation goals for themselves
Transactional leadership is most similar to:
path-goal theory of leadership
Which of the following statements about the leadership substitutes model is FALSE?
Leadership substitutes neutralize or replace transformational rather than transactional leadership
According to recent writing on the subject, which of the following competencies is/are characteristic of effective leaders?
All of these are leadership competencies
Suppose that you are the new supervisor of a unit of employees who work in non-routine jobs. These employees are highly experienced and confident in their work. According to path-goal theory, which leadership style would be most appropriate in this situation?
Participative
Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of shared leadership?
The most effective form of leadership is the shared type
Competency, contingency, implicit, and transformational represent four of the main:
perspectives of leadership
According to Fiedler's contingency model of leadership:
Fiedler's theory states none of these
Which of the following statements about path-goal leadership is true?
According to path-goal theory, leaders might simultaneously use two or more leadership styles
According to the behavioral perspective of leadership:
leadership behaviors are clustered into people- oriented and task-oriented groups
Fiedler's contingency model of leadership has made an important and lasting contribution to the study of leadership because it:
suggests that organizations need to engineer the situation to fit the leader's preferred style, rather than vice versa
Effective communication occurs when:
information is transmitted and understood between two or more people
What effect does 'noise' have in the communication model?
It distorts and obscures the sender's intended message
Emotional contagion has what effect in the communication process?
It provides feedback to the sender that the receiver understands and empathizes with the message
Which of these communication channels would have lower media- richness than a video conference between two people?
All of the above
In the communication process, filtering occurs when:
People communicate mainly positive information about themselves by screening out negative information
Research suggests that effective workspace design mainly balances the trade-off between:
employee privacy and social interaction
In organizational settings, power is defined as:
the capacity to influence others
Power is ---, whereas influence is---.
potential, behavior
Countervailing power refers to:
the capacity to keep someone who is more powerful than you exchanged in the relationship
Legitimate, referent, and expert are:
different sources of organizational power
Employees have----, ranging from sarcasm to ostracism, to ensure that coworkers conform to team norms.
coercive power
As our society moves from an industrial to a knowledge based economy, employees are gaining
expert power
Three general strategies for coping with uncertainty include:
prevention, forecasting, absortption
What types of power do people tend to gain through networking?
Referent and expert power
Exchange and ingratiation are:
two forms of influence
People with high Machiavellian values tend to:
frequently use power to manipulate others toward their own personal goals
The current perspective on organizational conflict is that:
moderate levels of conflict are necessary and produce favorable outcomes
The conflict process begins:
when scarce resources, different values, or other conditions exist that potentially causes conflict
According to research on gender and conflict management styles, women tend to adopt the---- style, whereas men tend to adopt the-----style.
yielding, avoiding
Dialogue potentially reduces conflict by:
improving communication and understanding between the parties
The bargaining zone model states that:
the negotiation process moves each party along a continuum with an area of potential overlap
Which leadership perspective takes the view that leadership is characteristic of the person?
Competency (trait) perspective of leadership
Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model states that the best leadership style depends on:
the readiness of followers
Which of the following would be a leadership substitute?
All of the above
Which leadership theory or perspective adopts the view that leaders are agents of change?
Transformational perspective
----represents the substance of transformational leadership
Strategic vision
Implicit leadership theory states that:
everyone is capable of being an effective leaders
Organic structures are better than mechanistic structures for:
hostile environments
Integrator roles do which of the following?
They support informal communication as a coordinating mechanism
When work activities are too complex to standardize through procedures or goals, companies often coordinate work effort:
by extensively training employees
A divisionalized structure has all of the following problems EXCEPT:
it limits the ability to expand operations
Which of the following is pressuring large global organizations to move from geographically based to more client-based divisionalized structures?
All of the above
A mechanistic organizational structure works better than an organic structure when:
the organization requires a high degree of formalization
-----establishes the chain of command, that is, the system of common supervision among positions and units within the organization
Departmentalization
To increase work efficiency and make it easier to match employee competencies with job requirements, companies tend to:
divide work into more specialized jobs
Two technological contingencies that influence the best type of organizational structure are:
variability, and analyzability
Coordination through formal hierarchy relies on:
direct supervision
Organizational socialization is best described as a process of :
learning and adjustment
Which of these statements about the strength of organizational culture and organizational performance is TRUE?
Organizations with stronger cultures tend to perform better than those with weak cultures when the culture content fits the external environment
Most employees would say that---- helped them adjust to their new job most
Socialization agents
During what stage of socialization do people FIRST learn about the organization and job?
Pre-employment
Resolving conflicts between work and nonwork mainly occurs during what stage of socialization?
Role management
Employees are organizationally socialized:
long before the first day of work
A deculturation strategy of merging two corporate cultures should be applied :
When employees in the acquired firm want to hold on to their firm's culture even though ti does not fit the external environment
Organizations that tolerate or encourage subcultures with dissenting values:
may eventually use those dissenting values to build a new set of dominant values in the future
Organizational culture serves what purpose in organizations?
All of these
The pre-employement stage of organizational socialization would be more effective if:
employers and job applicants gave and received accurate information about each other
Which model of organization change explicitly refers to unfreezing the current situation and refreezing the desired state?
Force field analysis
When managing change, learning should be used:
when incongruent organizational systems reinforce past behaviors and cause resistance to new behaviors
A parallel learning structure:
includes highly participative teams constructed alongside the formal organizational hierarchy
Which of the following organizational change strategies should be applied only when time is limited and other options are unlikely to succeed?
Coercion
According to the action research model, which of the following occur during the "diagnose need for change" step?
Analyze data
Which of these conditions LIMITS the diffusion of change to other parts of the organization?
Every employee involved in the pilot project stays with the pilot project rather than being moved to other areas of the organization
In the organizational change process, strategic visions:
minimize fear of the unknown and provide a better understanding about what behaviors are required
In organizational change, unfreezing may occur by:
Doing both 'B' and 'D', increasing the driving forces, and reducing the restraining forces
The four stages of appreciative inquire, in order, are:
discovery, dreaming, designing, delivering
Change agents can be:
None of these may be change agents
All organizational structures have the following two fundamental requirements:
division of labor and coordination
An organizational chart mainly illustrates which type of coordinating mechanism?
Formal hierarchy
A wider span of control is possible where:
employees manage themselves rather than being coordinated through close supervision
The trend toward flatter organizational structures (delayering) has occurred because this action:
does only 'A' and 'C' , tends to reduce overhead costs, and puts decision makers closer to front line staff and information
Mechanistic structures operate best:
in stable environments
When does a divisionalized structure work best? Is it where the organization?
Is expanding into several distinct product and /or client groups
Which form of departmentalization increases the risk of duplication and underutilization of resources?
Divisional structure
Which form of departmentalization tends to have a very flat hierarchy, little formalization and organizes employees around work processes?
Team-based structure
One common type of matrix structure overlays a functional structure with:
project teams
A matrix structure often combines which two forms of departmentalization?
Geographic divisional structure and product divisional structure
Organizational size, technology, and environment are:
three contingencies of organizational design
Larger organizations tend to:
make greater use of standardization than do smaller firms
The best way to determine an organization's shared assumptions is to:
determine what the organization's enacted values are
Which of the following is a spawning ground for emerging corporate culture values?
subcultures
Rituals are:
Programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organization's culture
What tends to happen when an organization's culture is misaligned with its external environment?
the organization has more difficulty anticipating and responding to stakeholder needs
The main purpose of a bicultural audit is to:
Identify and diagnose differences in the corporate cultures of merging organizations
-----occurs when employees at the acquired company willingly embrace the cultural values of the acquiring organization
Assimilation
Reality shock is:
a perceived discrepancy between employee expectations and reality
The main objective of force field analysis is to help change agents to:
diagnose the situation better by understanding the driving and constraining forces for change
According to force field analysis, the preferred strategy for unfreezing the status quo is to:
increase the driving forces and reduce or remove the restraining forces
The highest priority and first strategy required for any organizational change is to:
communicate the need for change and keep employees informed about what they can expect from the change effort
The textbook describes several strategies to minimize change. Which two of these strategies should be applied LAST?
Coercion and negotiation
Which of the following organizational change activities is related to 'bringing the entire system into the room"?
Future search conferences
Action research is:
a highly participative process of planned change
Appreciative inquiry begins by:
identifying the positive elements of an organization or work unit that is performing well