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45 terms

exam 2

STUDY
PLAY
Dolly the sheep is an example of
reproductive cloning
the individuals credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA are
James Watson and Francis Crick
about what percentage of a human's DNA is coding?
1%
Hydrangeas have different colored flowers depending on the acidity of the soil. this is due to
an environmental effect
a promising vector being used in gene therapy is the:
adenovirus
rhinovirus
rhino-associated virus
adeno-associated virus
adeno associated virus
alternative forms of a gene that influence the same trait and are found at the same location on homologous chromosomes are called
alleles
the pap smear is an important test for the presence or absence of cancer of the
cervix
which of the following have nitrogenous bases correctly paired in DNA
adenine - thymine
guanine - cytosine
the human genome consists of about ______ genes
25,000
the person considered the "father" of genetics is
mendel
a "transgenic" plant:
is the offspring of a clone
has been amplified by PCR
contains a foreign gene
is infected with bacteria
contains a foreign gene
which type of mutation will have the most evolutionary consequence:
mutation in a germ line cell
mutation in a lung cell
mutation in a stomach cell
mutation in a kidney cell
mutation in a germ line cell
which is not true according to mendels law of segregation:
each individual contains 2 factors for each trait
one factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual
factors separate from each other during gamete formation
each gamete contains one copy of each factor
one factor must be dominant and one factor recessive in each individual
a nucleotide contains:
DNA & RNA
complementary purines and pyrimidines
a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
RNA, proteins, and lipids
sugar and phosphate
a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
unprocessed mRNA is found in the
nucleus
if an organism shows a recessive phenotype, such as short pea plants, it can be (t)
tt
the function of transfer RNA is to
transfer nucleotides to the nucleus
transmit coded information to the cytoplasm
turn DNA on and off
carry amino acids to ribosomes
carry amino acids to ribosomes
in humans widows peak (W) is dominant over straight hairline (w). if a heterozygous male marries a female with a straight hairline, what percentage of their children can be expected to have a widow's peak?
50%
during the process of transcription the information in:
DNA information is converted into protein information
RNA information is converted into DNA information
DNA information is converted into RNA information
RNA information is converted into protein information
DNA information is converted into RNA information
an intervening sequence of DNA that is not expressed is called an
intron
a woman who can roll her tongue (A) is married to a man who cant (a). 2 of their 4 children can roll their tongues and 2 cant. genotype? phenotype? of parents
woman Aa
man aa
Mr. X has been accused by Miss Z of fathering her child. The Child's blood type is AB and Miss Z's blood type is A. Mr X could not be the father if his blood type is
A or O
traits that are controlled by several sets or pairs of alleles, such as skin color and height in humans are the result of what form of inheritance
polygenic
an adult stem cell differs from an embryonic stem cell in that it is not:
capable to further cell division
able to produce a blastocyst
able to accept methyl groups
totipotent
totipotent
four different chain terminating chemical tags that mimic nucleotides are used in:
PCR
therapeutic cloning
transcription
sequencing DNA
sequencing DNA
plasmids are important in biotechnology because they are:
a vehicle for the insertion of recombinant DNA into bacteria
recognition sites on recombinant DNA strands
surfaces for respiratory processes in bacteria
proviruses incorporated into the host DNA
a vehicle for the insertion of recombinant DNA into bacteria
in the procedure known as gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are separated by their
length
about what percentage of the DNA of humans and chimpanzees is different at the level of single letters of the genetic code
1%
the goal of the Human Genome Project was to:
isolate all DNA from a human cell
obtain a DNA fingerprint from every human
collect a sample of DNA from every human
determine the complete sequence of human DNA
surface for a protein synthesis in eukaryotic recombinants
determine the complete sequence of human DNA
the process of bringing the appropriate amino acid into position along the mRNA in the cytoplasm is
transcription
translation
transduction
promotion
translation
which of the following is not a dietary guideline for preventing cancer ?
lower total fat intake
eat high fiber food
eat more salt cured or smoked foods
eat more from cabbage family
eat more salt cured or smoked foods
these are all stages of genetic engineering except
cleavage of DNA
screening bacterial libraries
producing recombinant DNA
washing microarray gene chips
washing microarray gene chips
inserting a gene encoding a pathogenic microbe's surface protein into a harmless virus is the way a ____ is produced
piggyback vaccine
mendel tested for heterozygotes by using
test cross
removal of tissue to determine the presence of cancer is called
biopsy
if one strand of DNA molecule has the base sequence GCATATT... its complimentary strand will have the sequence
CGTATAA
if a fragment of eukaryotic RNA is needed that is made up only of exons, the place to look in the cell to find this is
in the cytoplasm
which of the following procedures would most likely be used to identify a specific individual of a population
DNA fingerprinting
When mRNA leave the cell's nucleus, it next becomes associated with
a ribosome
In horses, black coat (B) is dominant over brown coat (b), and being a trotter (T) is dominant over being a pacer (t). If you cross a male horse that is heterozygous for both characters with a female horse that is heterozygous for coat color but is a pacer, what would the possible gametes be for each parent?
Male gametes BT; Bt, bT, bt
Female gametes Bt and bt
What is Taq polymerase and how is it used?
Taq polymerase is a form of DNA polymerase that is heat resistant. It is used in PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
Before genetic engineering, from what did doctors obtain:
insulin?
human growth hormone?
Insulin: from the pancreases of cattle, pigs, fish, etc
Human growth hormone: from human cadavers
Match the disease to the type of genetic disorder with which it is most commonly associated.
a. nondisjunction 1. sickle cell anemia
b. sex-linked 2.Huntington's disease
c. autosomal recessive 3.red-green color-blindness
d. autosomal dominant 4.Turner's syndrome
5.cystic fibrosis
6.Down's syndrome
C : sickle-cell anemia
D: Huntington's disease
B: red-green color-blindness
A: Turner's syndrome
C: cystic fibrosis
A: Down's syndrome
Explain "sticky ends". What are they? How are they made? Why are they useful?
Sticky ends are made by cleaving DNA with a restriction enzyme. The ends of the cut have an overhanging piece of single-stranded DNA since the two sides of the DNA are complementary. These exposed nucleotides readily join with others that have been cut with the same restriction enzyme. It makes it easy to join together ends of DNA from multiple sources, like inserting a gene into a plasmid.
Draw and complete a Punnett square to cross two cats that are each heterozygous for black fur color, where black is the dominant trait and white the recessive. What is the genotypic ratio of this cross? What is the phenotypic ratio of this cross? Be specific
B b
B BB Bb
b Bb bb

genotype: 1 homozygous (or true-breeding) dominant
2 heterozygous
1 homozygous (or true-breeding) recessive

phenotype: 3 black to 1 white