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Charlottes Biology Study Guide
Terms in this set (53)
Every living organism needs nutrients to build tissues and carry out essential life functions. Like water, nutrients are passed between organisms and the environment through biochemical cycle.
The Carbon Cycle
4 main types of processes that move carbon through its cycle
(Carbon Cycle) Biological Processes
Such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen.
(Carbon Cycle) Geochemical Processes
Such as erosion and volcanic activity, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and oceans C
(Carbon Cycle) Mixed Biochemical Processes
Such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum, store carbon underground
(Carbon Cycle) Human Activities
Such as mining cutting and burning forests and burning fossil fuels release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere
(Carbon Cycle) Biological Importance of Nutrient Cycles
Forms framework for organic Molecules
(Carbon Cycle) Forms available to Life
CO2-Plants and carbohydrates- animals
(Carbon Cycle) Reservoirs
Atmosphere (cO2) Fossils fuels, rock
(Carbon Cycle) Key Processes
Photosynthesis, respiration, human activity, decomposition, volcanic activity
The Nitrogen Cycle
Biological importance- Component of amino acids that make up proteins
Forms available to life: No3 or No2
Key Processes: Nitrogen Fixation, denitrification, fertilizer, root uptake, excretion, decomposition
The Water Cycle
Biological Importance- Affects the rate of production and decomposition
Forms available to Life- Liquid
Reservoirs- Oceans (97%), Ice caps (1%), Ground Water (2%)
Key Processes- Evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, run off, seepage, root uptake.
A factor that causes the population growth to decrease
Competition, predation, parasitism and disease, drought and other climate extremes, human disturbances
Density (Limiting Factor)
Dependent factor- only becomes limiting when the population density reaches a certain level
(Symbiotic Relationship) Mutualism
Both species benefit from the relationship. Example:
Ants protect aphids and aphids produce liquid for ants (++)
(Symbiotic Relationship) Commensalism
One member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Example: Orchid living in a tree (+0)
(Symbiotic Relationship) Parasitism
One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it. Example: A tick feeds on the blood of its host and often carries diseases (+-)
Can be replenished because its alive or through biochemical cycles. Example: Trees, water, wind, and solar energy
Cannot be replenished by natural process. Example: Fossil Fuels, Nuclear Energy, Ecosystems.
7 Levels of Classification
Scientists classify organisms and assign a universally accepted name.
Need for Universal Names
European scientist recognized that referring to organisms by common names was confusing. Common names vary among languages and even among regions within a single country. To eliminate confusion they agreed to a single name for each species.
Characteristics of bacteria
Unicellular, cell wall, Asexual reproduction, No nuclear, Prokaryotic, Autotrophs/Heterotrophs
4 Types of Fungi
Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Deuteromycota
2 Mutualistic relationships with Fungi
Penicillin and Mycorrhiza-formed from an association between plant roots and primitive fungi, help increase a plant's nutrient uptake.
Include gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers- Reproduce with cones
Develop unique reproductive organs known as flowers. Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seed. Reproduce with flowers
-Embryo with 1 cotyledon, usually developing under ground
-Roots usually fibrous
-Growth is mostly herbaceous
-Vascular bundles scattered
-Leaves usually parallel-veined
-Flower Parts usually in multiples of 3
-Embryo with 2 cotyledons, usually developing above ground
-A primary root usually present
-Growth either herbaceous or woody
-Vascular bundles usually forming a ring
-Leaves usually net-veined
-Flower parts usually 4 or 5
Porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf. Unfortunately water escapes too.
Loss of water through leaves
The Guard Cells of Plant swell open when
A plant is well watered
When the Guard Cells of a Plant Shrink
The plant has lost too much water & the Stomata Closes
Increasing in Length
From Apical Meristem
Region of undifferentiated cells
Increasing in width
(Plant Hormone) Auxin
Compounds that positively influence cell enlargement, bud formation and root initation. They also promote the production of other hormones and in conjunction with cytokinins, they control the growth of stems, roots and fruits, and convert stems into flowers.
Cytokinins or CKs
A group of chemicals that influence cell division and shoot formation
Gibberellins or GAs
Include a large range of chemicals that are produced naturally within plants and by fungi.
A gas that forms through the breakdown of methionine, which is in all cells. Ethylene has very limited solubility in water and does not accumulate within the cell but diffuses out of the cell and escapes out of the plant. Its effectiveness as a plant hormone is dependent on its rate of production versus its rate of escaping into the atmosphere. Ethylene is produced at a faster rate in rapidly growing and dividing cells, especially in darkness.
The tendency of a plant to grow toward the source of light
The response of a plant to the force of gravity
Members of the Kingdom Animalia
Are: Multicellular, eukaryotic, heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls.
Phylum name for Sponges and What it means:
The phylum name is Porifera, which menas "pore-bearers." This name is appropriate because sponges have tiny openings or pores, all over their bodies.
Main Characteristics of Cnidarians and examples of organisms
Cnidarians are soft bodied, carnivorous animals that have stinging tentacles arranged in circles around their mouths. They are the simplest animals to have body symmetry and specialized tissues.
Examples: Jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, and corals
Flatworms, tapeworms, and flukes
Threadworms, roundworms and hookworms
Earthworms and Bristleworms- Breathe through their skin. Worms are both male and female
Have segmented body, a tough exoskeleton, and joined appendages.
Are characterized by spiny skin, an internal skeleton, a water vascular system and suction-cuplike structures called tube feet. Most adult echinoderms exhibit 5 part radial symmetry
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