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80 terms

Midterm Vocab

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artifact
a man-made object left behind by people
archaeologist
a scientist that digs up human remins and analyzes them to study the human past
hominid
of the family of the primates that evolved into modern humans
tool
an object used to do something or make doing something easier
hunter-gatherer
a person who collects their food from nature and find and kill their food
ice-age
a long period of below average temperature when the ice at the poles expands (glacial growth)
history
the study of the past; everything before now; written record of the past
2.6 mya
The Stone age begins (date)
1.5 mya
The Ice Age Begins(date)
50,000 BC
How far back can you date with radiocarbon dating?
30,000 BC
Neanderthals die out(date)
10,000 BC
End of Ice Age(date)
3,000 BC
End of the Stone Age; Invention of Metal (date)
australopithecine
first hominids to walk upright and make tools
homo habilis
first hominids to scavenge meat
homo ergaster
hominids with longer legs, shorter arms, and larger brain than homo habilis; slender for heat tolerance, first emotion
homo erectus
first hominids to use fire
Neanderthals
first hominids to bury their dead
Homo sapiens sapiens
hominids that are the same as modern humans; had art
radiocarbon dating
a method of dating using the amount of C-14 left in an object
stratigraphy
dating by which layer of dirt or sediment the object was found in
Civilization
an advanced society that has specialization of labor, cities, government, large structures, and writing
Agriculture
the systematic and deliberate planting and growing of crops and the domestication of animal beginning in 10,000 BC
Domestication
the adaption of animals for human use
10,000 BC
Beginning of agriculture
Neolithic Revolution
the time period when systematic agriculture changed the way people lived drastically beginning in 10,000 BC and ending when the first Civilization started
Specialization of Labor
focusing on one job an making one thing while relying on others for everything else
3500 BC
Sumerians became a civilization
ca. 2300 BC
Sargon Invaded
ca. 1600 BC
Hittites came to power
ca. 1200 BC
Phoenicians became free
ca. 1000 BC
Hebrews established their first kingdom
ca. 700 BC
Assyrians conquered Phoenicia and Israel
ca. 612 BC
Chaldeans conquered Judah and enslaved the Jews
ca. 330 BC
Persians empire was conquered by Alexander (Greeks)
City-State
a central city and the surrounding farmland, usually walled in and has an independent government
Empire
a large settlement that controls many other peoples and places away from the central city
Theocracy
government run by a priest or priestess according to religious belief
Colony
a settlement owned by another settlement that is away and separate from that settlements home land
Pastoral Nomad
migratory herder who followed established trade routes and occasionally, in times of hardship, invaded
Indo-European
any group of people from central asia who spoke a language derived from one parent language
Polytheism
a religion worshiping multiple gods or deities
Dynasty
a series of rulers from the same family
Bureaucracy
an administrative government where many levels of appointed officials do the work of the government
Civil War
a war within a country, state, province, empire, etc.
3100-2700 BC
Predynastic period; unification and writing began
2700-2200 BC
Old Kingdom; Pyramids
2200-2000 BC
1st Intermediate; civil war moved capital to Thebes
2000-1650 BC
Middle Kingdom; Trade expansion and red sea canal
1650-1550 BC
2nd Intermediate; Bronze weapons and chariots
1550-1100 BC
New Kingdom; Empire
1100-331 BC
Decline and End
2500 BC
Indus Civilization began
1500 BC
Indo-Aryan Civilization began
1000 BC
First Vedas were written
ca. 500 BC
When Siddhartha Gautama lived
Monsoon
a seasonal wind pattern in southeast asia; dry in winter, wet in summer; unpredictable
Aryan
Indo-Europeans from central Asia who spoke sanskrit; war-like and nomadic, light skinned; invaded India and started 2nd Indian civilization
Sanskrit
Indo-European language brought by Aryans to India, became writing in 1000 BC
Kshatriyas
The warrior varna of the caste system; second highest varna composed of Aryan people
Sudras
lowest varna in the caste system composed of Indus people who did labor jobs
Atman
the individual soul
Brahmins
the priestly caste of hinduism
Karma
the belief that what you do in this life determines how you will be reborn into the next life
Dharma
the divine law of Hinduism and the caste system
Middle Path
Right View, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Right Effort, Right Speech, Right Intention, Right Livelihood,
Xia Dynasty
legendary first Chinese dynasty that was said to begin around 2000 BC
Aristocracy
government where power, wealth, and lands are in the hands of the hereditary upper class (aristocrats)
Ancestor Worship
Chinese practice of worshiping dead relatives to bring good or bad luck to the family and burning offerings to them
Dao
the natural order of things; "the way"
Filial Piety
"respect of the son for the father" a social concept that is the heart of the family concept. All members of the family must subordinate themselves to the desires of the male head of the family
Analects
Confucius's sayings written down by his followers
Laozi
legendary creator of daoism, said to have lived 500 BC
Legalism
political philosophy in which harsh law, force, and following the law through fear of punishment are all used
Ideographs
a combination of two or more pictographs to represent an idea
1750 BC
Beginning of the Shang Dynasty; China became Civ.
1045 BC
End of the Shang Dynasty, beginning of the Zhou Dynasty and the Western Zhou period at Xian
ca. 500 BC
emergence of Confucianism and Daoism; time of trouble and chaos in China
403 BC
beginning of the Period of Warring States(warfare between territories to find the next dynasty)
256 BC
official end of the Zhou Dynasty, continued civil war though