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Hoyt's Sector Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD)
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
Harris & Ulman's Multiple Nuclei Model
A model that depicts a city growing from several separate focal points
Urban Realm Model
describes spatial components of the modern metropolis- separate economic, social, and political entity
Griffin-Ford Latin American City Model
showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
in griffin ford model (updated by larry ford) adds a ring highway around the outskirts of the city
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia.
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land with little concern for urban planning.
Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
A statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of the land in some way; often used to prohibit certain groups of people from buying property
The tendency for industry to develop in a core-periphery pattern, enriching the industrialized countries of the core and impoverishing the less industrialized periphery. This term is also used to describe urban patterns in which suburban areas are enriched while the inner city is impoverished.
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
A practice by banks and mortgage companies of demarcating areas considered to be a high risk for housing loans
The displacement of lower-income residents by higher-income residents as buildings in deteriorated areas of city centers are restored
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Master Planned Communities
Large-scale residential developments that include, in addition to architecturally compatible housing units, planned recreational facilities, schools, and security measures
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America gated communities are increasingly a middle-class phenomenon.
Those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community.
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