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The Evolution of Reggae Music

Bob Marley; began with Mento then Ska, Rock Steady

Jerry Wexler

A reporter for billboard magazine, later turned producer made the phrase Rhythm and Blues

Musical Theater

fuses a script (spoken dialogue) singing and dancing

Fusion Jazz

Jazz Rock; uses Jazz improvisation and jazz chord progressions combined with the rhythm of rock music. A popular composer and performer is Chick Corea

Free jazz

Type of Jazz that relies almost exclusively on imporvisation. A well known composer and performer is Ornette Coleman

Three Prominent types of music indigenous to Arkansas

Country, Bluegrass and Rockability

John Philip Sousa

known as the "March king" of U.S

Andrew Lloyd Webber

One of the most prolific composers of musicals of all time; Cats, Phantom of the Opera and Jesus Christ Superstar

That's All Right Mama

Elvis Presley first demo single record

Three of the most important musical elements of Heavy metal music

Scream, Breakdown and solo

Emancipation of Dissonance

The 20th century musical concept that describes dissonance no longer being tied down to its former function, but has become an entity in and of itself.


Two different traditional chords sounded at the same time.

Fourth Cord

Chord based on the interval of a fourth rather than a third. Sometimes called quartal harmony.

Tone Cluster

Chord made up of tones that are only a half step or whole step apart.


System of pitch organization in the 20th century in which two or more keys are used at the same time (bitonality for example).


The absence of tonality or key.

Twelve-Tone System

20th century system of pitch organization developed by Arnold Schoenberg in which each of the twelve chromatic tones is given equal prominence.


Two or more contrasting and independent rhythms occurring at the same time.


A motive, phrase, or rhythm that is repeated persistently in a composition.

Whole Tone Scale

A scale built entirely of whole steps--a scale developed by French composer Claude Debussy


Musical style marked by emotional restraint balance and clarity and inspired by the forms and stylistic features of 18th century music.


The evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds.


Musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion, and harsh dissonance, typical of German and Austrian music of the early 20th century.


Musical style from 1890-1920 which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Claude Debussy.

"Prelude to the Afternoon" of a Faun by Debussy

This piece based on a poem is both programmatic and an example of Impressionism.

"The Rite of Spring" by Stravinsky

This piece is a good example of primitivism by a neoclassical composer

"Pierrot lunaire" by Schoenberg

This piece is a song cycle and also uses the technique of Sprechstimme.

"A Survivor from Warsaw" by Schoenberg

This piece is a cantata that deals with the murder of 6 million Jews by the Nazis during world war II. It also uses the technique of Sprechstimme.

"Five Pieces for Orchestra" by Webern

This piece by Webern is atonal and is written for a small chamber orchestra including unconventional instruments like mandolin and harmonium. It is an example of "expressive lyricism"

"Concerto for Orchestra" by Bartok

This 20th century piece by a Hungarian composer is a show piece for virtuoso musicians and uses a lot of traditional chords

"Afro-American Symphony" by Still

This piece was written during the "Harlem Renaissance" and is an attempt by the composer to elevate "the Blues" to a higher artistic level.

"Appalachian Spring" by Copland

This piece was originally a ballet score and the rhythms and melodies are very "American sounding"


Using techniques of the twelve-tone system to organize rhythm, pitch, dynamics, and tone color

Chance Music

Music in which a composer chooses pitches, tone colors and rhythms by a random method or allows the performer to choose much of the musical material

Minimalist Music

Music characterized by a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic and/or rhythmic patterns

Musical Quotation

Musical works that contain deliberate quotations from earlier music

Liberation of Sound

Greater exploitation of noise-like sounds

Prepared Piano

A grand piano whose sound is altered by objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, pieces of felt, paper and plastic

From what six (6) musical sources did 20th-century composers get their inspiration to write compositions? (for example Asian music, jazz, etc.)

Asia, folk, popular, Latin, Jazz, European, and Afican

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