Hazards (Case Studies)

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Kashmir: type of margin
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Terms in this set (45)
Kashmir: short term responseFirst 24h rapid international response from rescue teams, tents given out by charities (35,000 still living in 45 tent camps), food and water reliefKashmir: long term response$millions spent rebuilding cities ($6.5 million pledged), schools and hospitals rebuilt, power lines and other communications reinstated, building regulations improvedEtna: whenNovember 2002Etna: type of marginConvergentEtna: type of volcanoStratovolcanoEtna: platesAfrican and EurasianEtna: locationSicily, SW of Italian mainland, largest island in Mediterranen basin, poorest area of Italy, agriculture, tourismEtna: richter scale4.3Etna: describeSeries of eruptions with explosions that blackened the sky, clouds of gas, ash forced from two vents, magma 100m into air, lava ran quickly down mountainside forming two flows, ash fell continuouslyEtna: social impacts1000 evacuated from homes, holiday homes displaced people, schools shut down, Catonia airport closed for 4 daysEtna: infrastructural impactsOver 100 homes damaged in Santa Venerina, restaurant destroyed, 3 ski lift pylons destroyedEtna: economic impactsDamage costs, tourism decline, business declineEtna: environmental100s hectares of forest destroyedEtna: response from Italian govItalian gov declared state of emergency in parts of Sicily, gave $8m immediate financial assistance to 300 families whose business were affected, and tax breaks, ship positioned off Catonia bay containing a medical clinicEtna: response to lavaRescue workers tried to divert lava that threatened a scientific monitoring centre, emergency workers dug channels in the earth to divert the northern flow from Linguaglossa, army used bulldozers to crack tarmac and build barriers in a car park near the city centreEthiopia: locationSahel regionEthiopia: when1984-1985Ethiopia: GDP per capita$110Ethiopia: life expentancy43 yearsEthiopia: physical causesAnticyclone weather, global warming, hotter weather (high temps 28-30 degrees), el nino , high sea tempEthiopia: human causesOverpopulation (1984-present, doubled), over cultivation, over extraction, deforestation (77% tree cover lost in last 25 years), overgrazing, politicsEthiopia: social impactsOver 1 million deaths, shortage of food and water (widespread starvation and illness), mass migration from remote areas (where no food aid) to refugee camp (altered population distribution)Ethiopia: economic impacts (and environmental impacts)Debt (aid), crop failure, 46% cattle diedEthiopia: environmental impactsCrop failure, deforestation, 46% cattle diedEthiopia: solutionsLow techKatrina: causes (exc. sea temp: 27 degrees, 60 m above sea leve)New Orleans below seal level, situated between river and lake, 740,000 peopleKatrina: peak category storm5Katrina: when23 August 2005 (tropical depression forms off SE Bahamas)Katrina: social impacts1836 deaths, over 10,000 homeless, 3 million without electricity, food and water shortage, crime: theft and violenceKatrina: economic impactsDamage costs over $300 billion, decline in tourism, decline in business (as well as looting)Katrina: environmental impacts33 tornadoes, over 80% of city flooded, strong winds created storm surgeKatrina: infrastructural impactsLevees and flood walls breached and collapsed, 2 major road bridges collapsed, most roads damagedKatrina: previous management (unsustainable)Levees and flood walls, 23ft high at Mississippi River, 17.5ft high at Lake Pontchartrain (if broken, larger volume of water which built up behind barrier)Katrina: response critismAuthorities were slow, poorest and most vulnerable groups left behind and law and order was their priority rather than helping people recoverKatrina: response$50b aid from gov, food aid from UK gov, National Guard mobilised (to restore law and order), broken levees repaired, flood water drained away (took months), sandbags airlifted by army and air force