110 terms

Poetry Terms Quizlet

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Ballad
Narrative poem that uses refrain and is often set to music. Second and fourth lines in the stanzas rhyme. They are often about lurid love gone wrong, or about an important historical event. These poems became popular as protest songs in the 20th century.
Villanelle
A poem with five tercets and a quatrain that repeats the lines from the first stanza throughout the poem. The Dylan Thomas poem "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" is an example of this form.
Limerick
Humorous poem that is often bawdy. Has rhyme pattern of aabba with anapestic rhythm.
Ode
Odes are often long lyric poems used as encomium (to praise someone) or as a meditation.
Metaphysical Poem
Poems that are witty and often use poetic conceit as a means of conveying meaning.
Seduction Poem
Poems written to convince a someone to go to bed with the speaker. Like, for real? Yep.
Sonnet
Often a love poem, but not always. They are always fourteen lines and generally are written in set rhyme pattern, and mostly are in iambic pentameter.
English or Shakespearean Sonnet
This sonnet is 14 lines and is comprised of four quatrains and a heroic couplet. The rhyme pattern for the quatrains is abab cdcd efef. The heroic couplet is gg. The meter is iambic pentameter.
Rhyme Pattern for English or Shakespearean Sonnets
abab cdcd efef gg
Italian Sonnet
This sonnet is 14 lines and is comprised of an octave and a sestet. The rhyme pattern of abbaabba is in the octave and it has a varying rhyme in the sestet, often cdcdcd or cdecde.
Rhyme Pattern for Italian Sonnets
abbaabba cdecde (The sestet might vary.)
Aubade
A poem about lovers waking up in the morning. Usually one is trying to keep the other in bed. Well, what are poems for, anyway?
Dream-Vision Poem
Poem that recounts a dream, often with surrealistic elements. The poet often awakes and the dream is allegorical.
Elegy
Poem or lament for the dead; a poem composed in elegiac couplets.
Pastoral Poem
A poem dealing with shepherds, flocks, nature and love and such.
Prose Poem
A prose work that is overwhelmingly poetic and lyrical -- usually short.
Lyric Poem
A poem that is about an idea.
Narrative Poem
The poem tells a story about a person or an event.
Dramatic Poem
Spoken by more than one person, like a play.
Aphorism
Brief, memorable statement of a truth or principle. Synonyms include maxim, epigram, and adage.
Connotation
The emotional quality of a word: Cf. house and home; dog and canine; naked or nude.
Dramatic Frame
The context in which the poem takes place. This might be the setting, but can also be an interior emotional space -- or really, anywhere.
Denotation
The dictionary definition. Double entendres arise if words have more than one meaning.
Imagery
Sensory words used to convey place, time, character, or mood. All five senses are available for imagery: Sight, Sound, Touch, Taste or Smell.
Listener
The one listening to the poem, not necessarily the audience.
Speaker or Voice
The character saying the poem, not necessarily the poet
Mood
The atmosphere created by text.
Tone
The emotional attitude created by text.
Syntax
The structure of sentences.
Refrain
Whole lines or groups of lines repeat in a fixed pattern in a poem or song.
Repetition
Repeating words, phrases, or lines in a poem.
Anaphora
Repetition of beginning words, as in Genesis and the Book of John.
Alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds: tried and true
Assonance
Repetition of vowel sounds: Time out of Mind; How now brown cow.
Cacophony or Dissonance
Ugly sounds: These can be created by consonants: as in buzzing sounds of s, x, z and plosives such as b,d,g,k,p,t.
Consonance
Repetition of end consonants: short and sweet; struts and frets.
Euphony
Beautiful sounds: These can be created by vowels and certain consonants such as r,l,v,n,m,w,y,wh,sh,th.
Onomatopoeia
Words whose meanings and sound match; cluck; plop.
Phonetic Intensive
Intensification of sensation through use of sound: Bubble, burble; chatter, splatter.
Perfect Rhyme
A type of rhyme where accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds rhyme: great and late; rider and beside her; dutiful and beautiful; divorce and remorse.
Masculine Rhyme
A rhyme made on one stressed syllable: still and hill; fly and sky.
Feminine or Double Rhyme
Two syllables rhyme, but not stressed at the end: frightful and spiteful; fertile and turtle ; assonance and consonance.
Triple Rhyme
Three syllables rhyme: icicle and bicycle.
Internal Rhyme
Two words within the same verse line rhyme.
External Rhyme
Two words within separate verse lines rhyme.
End Rhyme
Words at the end of the verse line rhyme.
Slant Rhyme
Also called near rhymes or approximate rhymes. These are rhymes that aren't exact but word sounds are similar, such as strut and fret. This term also includes half rhymes such as lightly and frightful or willow and yellow. It includes eye rhymes such as love and move, and forced rhymes such as rhinoceros and prepocerous; platinum and flatten 'em; hoist her and cloister. (See Ira Gershwin lyrics!)
Terza Rima
Following the continuing rhyme pattern of: aba bcb cdc
Figurative Language or Trope
Any non-literal expression that is considered "a figure of speech".
Allegory
The entire story uses subsidiary symbols often to teach a lesson. This genre includes fables and parables. (Figurative language)
Apostrophe
Addressing a dead person or inanimate object or animal. (Figurative language).
Dramatic Irony
Contrast between what the reader or one character knows and what the other characters don't. (Figurative language)
Situational Irony
The contrast between the unexpected and the expected.(Figurative language)
Verbal Irony
The contrast between what is meant and what is not meant. (It sounds like a lie.) (Figurative language)
Sarcasm
Verbal irony meant to cause emotional pain. (Figurative language)
Allusion
Reference to other known sources such as myth, art, literature, cultural icons or events included to deepen descriptive power in a poem.
Metaphor
Direct comparison without using like or as. Using substitution of normally unlike objects to deepen description. A "sea of troubles".
(Figurative language) These always have a literal and figurative term, and either might be named or implied.
Extended Metaphor
The comparison extends the non-literal element. When it is the entire poem, it is called poetic conceit. (Figurative language)
Poetic Conceit
The entire poem is an extended metaphor that uses a variety of figurative comparisons, either named or implied, as subsidiary elements to describe one literal object or idea.
Simile
Comparison using like or as.
(Figurative language) These always have a literal and figurative term, and either might be named or implied.
Epic Simile
The comparison extends the non-literal element. When it is the entire poem, it is called poetic CONCEIT. (Figurative language)
Metonymy
Something like the object represents the whole: "The world is not your friend." Meaning the people, not the literal planet. (Figurative language)
Synecdoche
A part of something stands for the whole "Friends, Romans, Countrymen. Lend me your ears." Let's hope Antony is NOT speaking literally! Perrine and others combine this with metonymy. (Figurative language)
Overstatement or Hyperbole
Exaggerating the importance of something. (Figurative language) "I could eat a horse."
Understatement
Stating something is less important than it is. (Figurative language) "Merely a flesh wound!"
Personification
An inanimate object takes on characteristics of a human.(Figurative language)
Symbolism
The literal object becomes something much larger and more profound in the context of the story: i.e. the empty chair at the table; the pickle dish. (Figurative language)
Ballad Meter
Following the following rhyme and metric pattern: x(4)a(3)x(4)a(3). The first and third line are tetrameter and don't rhyme. The second and fourth lines are trimeter and do rhyme.
Rhyme Royal
Following the rhyme pattern of ababbcc, with iambic pentameter.
Heroic Couplets
Couplets in iambic pentameter. These are found at the end of English sonnets.
Volta
The line in a poem that presents a transition or new idea. The ninth line of the Petrarchan sonnet is often one.
Couplet
Two lines of rhymed poetry.
Tercet
Three lines of poetry.
Quatrain
Four lines of poetry.
Sestet
Six lines of poetry.
Octave
Eight lines of poetry.
Blank Verse
Unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Cadence
A balanced rhythmic flow or meter.
Caesura
A break in meter caused by punctuation inside the line, or natural or metrical pause within the line.
Elision
Leaving out syllables in a word: o'er, e'er, n'er.
End-Stopped Line
Verse line that ends with a natural speech pause, usually with punctuation.
Enjambment
Verse line that doesn't end naturally, or with punctuation but continues to next line.
Foot
One metric unit, such as an iamb, a trochee, an anapest or a dactyl. Poetic measure is determined by number of these per line.
Free Verse
A poem with no fixed meter or form.
Measure
The number of feet per line of poetry. Part of the "time signature" of poetry.
Meter
This is determined by the measure and the type of metric units (poetic feet) per line. The natural accents on word syllables and dramatic reading determine this. Articles and prepositions are not often stressed. You can have leftover unaccented syllables at the end or at the beginning. Types are: trochaic tetrameter, dactylic hexameter, iambic pentameter, alexandrine.
Iambic Pentameter
Pattern of five iambic feet per verse line. Common to Chaucer and Shakespeare. The meter of English sonnets.
Alexandrine Meter
Pattern of four anapestic feet per verse line. Also called anapestic tetrameter.
Trochaic Tetrameter
Patter of four trochaic feet per verse line. Common to Anglo Saxon.
Scan
You do this to find the metric pattern of a poem. The noun form is called scansion.
Stress
The accented syllables that help determine meter, though other words can carry it.
Meter Slows Down
This happens if you add more stresses, long vowels, duple meters, hard to pronounce consonant combinations, and rhetorical pauses.
To Speed Up Meter
This happens with more triple meters and unaccented or short vowels and consonants.
Iamb
u / Unstressed, stressed: As in Elaine.
Trochee
/ u Stressed, unstressed: As in Michael.
Anapest
u u / Unstressed, unstressed, stressed: As in Mariel or Betty-Lou.
Dactyl
/ u u Stressed, unstressed, unstressed: As in Jessica.
Monosyllabic Foot
/ One stressed syllable: As in Paul.
Spondee
/ / Two equally stressed syllables.
Molussus
/ / / Three equally stressed syllables.
Duple Meter
Employs iambs or trochees to create rhythm.
Triple Meter
Employs anapests or dactyls to create rhythm.
Monometer
One poetic foot per verse line.
Dimeter
Two poetic feet per verse line.
Trimeter
Three poetic feet per verse line.
Tetrameter
Four poetic feet per verse line.
Heptameter
Seven poetic feet per verse line.
Pentameter
Five poetic feet per verse line.
Hexameter
Six poetic feet per verse line.
Octameter
Eight poetic feet per verse line.