organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
all life on earth; the parts of the solid earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which lviving organisms can be found
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph
the process by which plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy-rich glucose molecules
hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide
two gases that probably existed in earth's early atmosphere are
the presence of liquid water
one necessary condition for the evolution of the first life on earth was
some became extinct, some survived in only a few airless habitats, some evolved metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration
what was the response of the various groups of early organisms that existed when oxygen levels rose in the atmosphere
by making new habitats available to them
in the past, mass extinctions encouraged the rapid evolution of surviving species
in miller-urey's experiments with the origin of life forms, electric sparks were passed through a mixture of gases to
hydrogen fusion is still progressing in the star's outer shell, no fusion is taking place in the core
these are very hot and massive. their gravity is so strong that light cannot even escape it
these stellar remnants of a supernova are extremely massive, dense, and spin rapidly. protons and electrons are combined
within one of the spirals
according to information received from radio telescopes, where is our sun positioned in the milky way?
when a star is thought to be born
a protostar reaches a temperature high enough for nuclear fusion to begin
hubble's law states that galaxies are retreating form earth at a speed that is proportional to their
10,000 light years thick
at its nucleus, the milky way galaxy is about 100,000 light years wide and about
characteristics of living things
1. made up of units called cells 2. reproduce 3. are based on a universal genetic code 3. grow and develop 5. obtain and use materials and energy 6. respond to their environment 7. taken as a group, change over time.
only 10% of energy is transferred to the next level, the other 90% is "lost" as heat
what is the 10% rule? what happens to the other 90%?
energy is "lost", whereas nutrients can be recycled
compare the movement of energy and nutrients through living systems
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. a pyramid promotes the most stability
there was a lot of magma and volcanic activity. hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and water were the substances that probably made up early earth's atmosphere
what was the early earth like? atmosphere (gasses)? activity?
a rapid diversification of marine life over a short amount of time. after a mass extinction, a different organism/species prospers (explodes)
what was the cambrian explosion? how does a rapid diversification of life relate to a mass extinction?
terrestrial (small and rocky): mercury, venus, earth, mars. jovian (huge gas giants): jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune
list the terrestrial planets. list the gasseous or jovian planets
according to the nebular theory, it formed from a rotating cloud of dust and gas
how did the solar system form?
tells whether a star is going toward or away from us
what does the use of the doppler effect tell astronomers about a star?
difference between absorption spectrum and emission spectrum. what can a star's spectrum tell astronomers about that star?
absorption: a continuous spectrum produced when white light is passed through a cool gas under low press; the gas absorbs selected wavelengths of light, and the spectrum looks like it has dark lines superimposed. emission: a series of bright lines of particular wavelengths produced by a hot gas under low pressure. tells us what it's made of what's surrounding
the distance light travels in one year; about 9.5 trillion km.
how long is a light year? what is a light year?
spiral galaxy. 100,000 l.y. wide, 10,000 l.y. thick
what is the size and structure of the milky way galaxy?
big bang theory
theory that proposes that the universe originate as a single mass, which subsequently exploded
change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
a shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths; generally interpreted as the Doppler effect resulting from the velocity at which they recede as the universe expands
plants absorb groundwater through their roots and release it through the pores of their leaves as water vapor into the atmosphere
in fossil fuels, atmosphere as co2, in living and dead biological tissue, dissolved in seawater
where else is carbon