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24 terms

MIS 404-Quiz 2

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Knowledge management
the set of business processes developed in an organization to create, store, transfer, and apply knowledge
Organizational learning
process of change that involves organizations adjusting their behavior to reflect experience and knowledge gained by creating new business processes and changing patterns of management decision-making
Organizational management and capital
the set of business processes, culture, and behavior required to obtain value from investments in information systems
Document management systems
these digitize, index, and tag documents according to a coherent framework stored in large databases adept at storing collections of ducments
Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
a senior executive who is responsible for the firm's knowledge management program—he helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes
Communities of practice (COP)
informal social networks of professionals and employees within and outside the firm who have similar work-related activities and interests
Enterprise-wide knowledge management systems
general-purpose firm wide efforts to collect, store, distribute, and apply digital content and knowledge (ex. Structured, Semi-Structured, and Knowledge network systems)
Knowledge work systems (KWS)
specialized systems built for engineers, scientists, and other knowledge workers charged with discovering and creating new knowledge for a company (ex. CAD, 3D visualization, VR, Investment workstations)
Intelligent techniques
these tools range in objectives ranging from a focus on discovering knowledge (ex. Data mining and neural networks) to distilling knowledge in the form of rules for a computer program (ex. Expert systems, fuzzy logic) to discovering optimal solutions for problems (genetic algorithms)
Structured knowledge
formal documents that an organization has such as text documents, reports, and presentations
Semi-Structured knowledge
less formal documents such as email, voice mail, memos, brochures, pictures, bulletin boards, etc
Network Knowledge
corporate experts in well-defined knowledge domains
Taxonomy
a scheme for classifying information and knowledge in such a way that it can be easily accessed (ex. Table of contents in a book, Dewey decimal system)
Learning management system (LMS)
it provides tools for the management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of various types of employee learning and training
Virtual reality modeling language (VRML)
a set of specifications for interactive, three dimensional modeling on the web that can organize multiple media types, including animation, images, and audio to put users in a simulated real-world environment
Data mining
process helps organizations capture undiscovered knowledge residing in large databases, providing managers with new insight for improving business performance
Expert system
intelligent technique for capturing tacit knowledge in a very specific and limited domain of human expertise, this knowledge is converted to rules that can be used throughout the entire organization
Forward chaining
expert system technique where the inference engine begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion
Backward chaining
expert system technique where a hypothesis is given at the beginning and the inference engine proceeds to ask the user questions about selected facts until the hypothesis is either confirmed or denied
Case-based reasoning (CBR)
intelligent technique where descriptions of past experiences of human specialists, represented as cases, are stored in a database
Fuzzy logic
rule based technology that can represent such imprecision by creating rules that use approximate or subjective values
Neural networks
used for modeling complex, poorly understood problems for which large amounts of data have been collected—acts like the human brain
Genetic algorithms
used for finding the optimal solution for a specific problem by examining a very large number or possible solutions for that problem
Intelligent agents
intelligent technique that helps businesses navigate through large amounts of data to locate only information that is considered important, and in some case, act on that information on behalf of the user