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Knowledge management

the set of business processes developed in an organization to create, store, transfer, and apply knowledge

Organizational learning

process of change that involves organizations adjusting their behavior to reflect experience and knowledge gained by creating new business processes and changing patterns of management decision-making

Organizational management and capital

the set of business processes, culture, and behavior required to obtain value from investments in information systems

Document management systems

these digitize, index, and tag documents according to a coherent framework stored in large databases adept at storing collections of ducments

Chief knowledge officer (CKO)

a senior executive who is responsible for the firm's knowledge management program—he helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes

Communities of practice (COP)

informal social networks of professionals and employees within and outside the firm who have similar work-related activities and interests

Enterprise-wide knowledge management systems

general-purpose firm wide efforts to collect, store, distribute, and apply digital content and knowledge (ex. Structured, Semi-Structured, and Knowledge network systems)

Knowledge work systems (KWS)

specialized systems built for engineers, scientists, and other knowledge workers charged with discovering and creating new knowledge for a company (ex. CAD, 3D visualization, VR, Investment workstations)

Intelligent techniques

these tools range in objectives ranging from a focus on discovering knowledge (ex. Data mining and neural networks) to distilling knowledge in the form of rules for a computer program (ex. Expert systems, fuzzy logic) to discovering optimal solutions for problems (genetic algorithms)

Structured knowledge

formal documents that an organization has such as text documents, reports, and presentations

Semi-Structured knowledge

less formal documents such as email, voice mail, memos, brochures, pictures, bulletin boards, etc

Network Knowledge

corporate experts in well-defined knowledge domains


a scheme for classifying information and knowledge in such a way that it can be easily accessed (ex. Table of contents in a book, Dewey decimal system)

Learning management system (LMS)

it provides tools for the management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of various types of employee learning and training

Virtual reality modeling language (VRML)

a set of specifications for interactive, three dimensional modeling on the web that can organize multiple media types, including animation, images, and audio to put users in a simulated real-world environment

Data mining

process helps organizations capture undiscovered knowledge residing in large databases, providing managers with new insight for improving business performance

Expert system

intelligent technique for capturing tacit knowledge in a very specific and limited domain of human expertise, this knowledge is converted to rules that can be used throughout the entire organization

Forward chaining

expert system technique where the inference engine begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion

Backward chaining

expert system technique where a hypothesis is given at the beginning and the inference engine proceeds to ask the user questions about selected facts until the hypothesis is either confirmed or denied

Case-based reasoning (CBR)

intelligent technique where descriptions of past experiences of human specialists, represented as cases, are stored in a database

Fuzzy logic

rule based technology that can represent such imprecision by creating rules that use approximate or subjective values

Neural networks

used for modeling complex, poorly understood problems for which large amounts of data have been collected—acts like the human brain

Genetic algorithms

used for finding the optimal solution for a specific problem by examining a very large number or possible solutions for that problem

Intelligent agents

intelligent technique that helps businesses navigate through large amounts of data to locate only information that is considered important, and in some case, act on that information on behalf of the user

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