Law Enforcement

chief of police
executive head of police agency
deputy of chief
second highest administrator
head of precinct, district, or bureau
head of unit, section, watch or shift
head of a group of personnel
Internal Affairs Unit
investigating alleged misconduct by police officers in the department
New York City 1907
the first organized K-9 unit
"Backbone" of the police department as the largest and most visible unit
Directed patrol
create blocks of time to implement specialized or directed crime prevention deterrence, and apprehension activities
aggressive patrol
attempts to deter crime or problems by increasing sanctions and threats of apprehension for specific crimes
saturation patrol
attempts to deter crime or problems in a specific area by deploying large numbers of officers
Secretive rogue
focused on criminals who were commiting great number of crimes; monetary rewarded or recognition; infiltrate criminal organizations; the detectives were often involved in criminal activities
expected more arrests and clearing cases from detectives
focus on specific crimes and to respond to individual crime victims; goal was to make sure that the criminal investigation process was correct
preliminary investigation
initial inquiry into a reported crime; crucial to sccessful solution and prosecution of a crime; patrol officers make the majority of the felony arrests
incident report
the basic facts about the crime, the crime scene, and suspects
watchman style
policing style with very low-key approach; emphasis on maintaining the peace; works well in a small community
legalistic style
policing style with More formal and stresses a full enforcement policy; Concerned with criminal law enforcement and criminal justice process; Not much discretion; Found in cities
service style
policing style with very responsive to public concerns; keeping the area safe; no proactive policing; suburban areas
extralegal violence
when an officer willfully and wrongfully uses force
unnecessary force
resort to force too quickly or needlessly
fleeing felon standard
Today, police officers may fire their weapons only in self-defense or to protect the life of another
rotten apples and rotten pockets
some individual officers commit illegal acts
pervasive unorganized corruption
significant number of officers commit illegal acts
pervasive organized corruption
officers committing illegal acts in an organized manner
complaints, use of force, reprimands, and discharge of firearms
four criteria of early warning systems:
civilian review boards
purpose: Maintain effective discipline of police, Provide satisfactory resolution of citizen complaints against officers, Maintain citizen confidence in police, Provide feedback from citizens
enactment of laws, allocation of funds, and legislative oversight
legislative branch of government can affect the exercise of discretion in 3 ways
appellate courts
govern procedural aspects of the law
criminal courts
dismiss cases or refuse to admit evidence
civil courts
issue a writ of mandamus to require or prohibit certain acts
community oriented policing
Attempted to faster better relationships between the police and the community; Foot patrol
problem oriented policing
Efforts to identify crime and disorder problems and develop police and community responses that effectively dealt with both causes and symptoms
broad police function
fear reduction and order maintencance
citizen input
police to work more closely with citizens
neighborhood variation
police follow the will of the community when dealing with situations and enforcing the law
strategic dimension
develop strategies to implement the philosophy of community policing
programmatic dimension
reoriented police operations
of the SARA model... specifically identifying the problem
of the SARA model... collect information from a variety of sources
of the SARA model... identification of possible solutions by working with community
of the SARA model... implementations of a solution and a subsequent evaluation to measure the effectiveness the solution
rational choice theory
criminal weigh the likelihood of being discovered with the potential benefits of the act
routine activities theory
crime occurs when a motivated criminal converges on a suitable target when there is a lack of guardianship
automatic vehicle locator
cars equipped with devices can be tracked by police cars
first AVM program
Monterey, CA 1970's
affirmative action
recruiting and hiring minorities and females
equal employment opportunity act
extended the civil rights acts to public employers; can sue public agencies for discrimination in employment