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create blocks of time to implement specialized or directed crime prevention deterrence, and apprehension activities
attempts to deter crime or problems by increasing sanctions and threats of apprehension for specific crimes
attempts to deter crime or problems in a specific area by deploying large numbers of officers
focused on criminals who were commiting great number of crimes; monetary rewarded or recognition; infiltrate criminal organizations; the detectives were often involved in criminal activities
focus on specific crimes and to respond to individual crime victims; goal was to make sure that the criminal investigation process was correct
initial inquiry into a reported crime; crucial to sccessful solution and prosecution of a crime; patrol officers make the majority of the felony arrests
policing style with very low-key approach; emphasis on maintaining the peace; works well in a small community
policing style with More formal and stresses a full enforcement policy; Concerned with criminal law enforcement and criminal justice process; Not much discretion; Found in cities
policing style with very responsive to public concerns; keeping the area safe; no proactive policing; suburban areas
fleeing felon standard
Today, police officers may fire their weapons only in self-defense or to protect the life of another
complaints, use of force, reprimands, and discharge of firearms
four criteria of early warning systems:
civilian review boards
purpose: Maintain effective discipline of police, Provide satisfactory resolution of citizen complaints against officers, Maintain citizen confidence in police, Provide feedback from citizens
enactment of laws, allocation of funds, and legislative oversight
legislative branch of government can affect the exercise of discretion in 3 ways
community oriented policing
Attempted to faster better relationships between the police and the community; Foot patrol
problem oriented policing
Efforts to identify crime and disorder problems and develop police and community responses that effectively dealt with both causes and symptoms
police follow the will of the community when dealing with situations and enforcing the law
of the SARA model... implementations of a solution and a subsequent evaluation to measure the effectiveness the solution
rational choice theory
criminal weigh the likelihood of being discovered with the potential benefits of the act
routine activities theory
crime occurs when a motivated criminal converges on a suitable target when there is a lack of guardianship
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