Terms in this set (82)
Albert Bandura and his colleagues were able to get the same findings in their observational learning research when children watched aggressive models on film as they did when children watched aggressive models in person. This lent additional support for Bandura's claims that observational learning represents a significant process by which certain behaviors are acquired. This demonstrates the critical thinking concept of
Ken's mouth waters every time he hears the ice cream truck's familiar song in the distance. One day a slightly different song is heard in the distance and Ken's mouth waters. Ken's behavior illustrates
Many people believe that research has provided conclusive evidence that watching violent television or playing violent video games causes children to behave in more aggressive ways. Others have suggested that this relationship is explained in reverse - that children who are more aggressive actively seek out more violent forms of media. This distinction demonstrates the value of remembering the critical thinking concept of
correlation versus causation
A reinforcer is a consequence that __________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that __________ a behavior.
The case of learning in the absence of reinforcement is demonstrated by studies of
The concept of latent learning was developed by __________.
Bill hates to clean up after dinner. One night, he volunteers to bathe the dog before cleaning up. When he finishes with the dog and returns to the kitchen, his wife has cleaned everything up for him. Which of the following statements is accurate?
Bill's wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog.
Regarding the two-processes of operant and classical conditioning, which is true?
Phobias are likely caused by classical conditioning maintained by operant conditioning.
Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey's dad might __________.
offer her a piece of candy
The tendency to respond to a conditioned stimulus that is similar, but not identical, to the original conditioned stimulus is called _____________.
The tendency for animals to return to innate behaviors following repeated reinforcement is called
Which of the following is an example of discovery learning?
A student working independently on a science project.
The situation of a student's final grade improving one letter grade for every three books read represents which schedule of reinforcement?
Which of the following is reflective of Seligman's research on conditioned taste aversion?
Contrary to most classically conditioned reactions, only one pairing of the CS with the UCS is needed to produce a taste aversion.
In 2000, neurophysiologist Eric Kandel was awarded the Nobel Prize for his research demonstrating that the process of habituation occurs even in very unsophisticated animals. What sort of organism did he use in this research?
In Pavlov's "salivating dogs" studies, the salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was the
Which of the following statements concerning sleep learning is true?
Sleep learning tapes work because we are likely not asleep the entire time they listen to the tapes.
Thorndike's law of effect is most closely associated with which operant conditioning principle?
Which of the following describes the situation of chaining?
Teaching a child to play tennis by providing reinforcement in steps for learning to serve, volley, and use the forehand and backhand until the child can play the complete game of tennis
The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called _________________
Who is best known for studying the phenomenon of insight in animals?
Which of the following describes the main difference between observational learning and operant conditioning?
Observational learning uses punishment and reinforcement of models to condition the behaviors of observers
You wake up at three o'clock in the morning, craving a glass of water. You get out of bed and walk to the kitchen but you do not turn on the light. Your ability to successfully navigate the house in the dark is due to the presence of
When Keller and Marian Breland, two psychologists who became animal trainers, decided to train raccoons to drop tokens into a piggy bank, they found that __________.
the raccoons displayed instinctive drift by rubbing the coins together, dropping them, and rubbing them together again.
Extinction in operant conditioning involves__________.
Although ethically questionable, the classic work of Watson and Rayner with Little Albert demonstrated that Freud's contention that phobias are seated deep in the unconscious was erroneous. Their research was an important demonstration of which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
According to ________ theory, learning is controlled by the consequences of an organism's behavior.
While on a cruise ship, Kevin became sick after eating a seafood dinner. His food poisoning coupled with sea sickness led to a terrible vacation and consequently Kevin shivers at the mere sight of a cruise ship. Kevin's behavior illustrates the process of
A small chamber used in operant conditioning of animals that limits the available responses and, thus, increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur is called a(n) __________.
A ________ is a mental representation of how a physical space is laid out or organized.
Researchers studying the effects of television violence on aggression have found that
media violence may cause aggression in children but this is difficult to substantiate because correlational studies used to investigate this link are low in internal validity
Many cognitive psychologists spend the majority of their careers studying the intricacies of human thought, asking and attempting to answer questions about the various processes we use to acquire knowledge and information from the world around us. B.F. Skinner, on the other hand, felt that thinking was merely another learned behavior, and that it was relatively useless to explore it as a process of any true depth. Skinner's simplification of the process of thinking demonstrates which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
You need to remove a broken light bulb from a lamp. Without a pair of gloves, you are likely to cut yourself on the jagged glass. Suddenly, it occurs to you that you can use a cut potato to remove the light bulb from the socket. You have just demonstrated __________.
In classical conditioning, the organism's responses depend primarily on the __________; in operant conditioning, the organism's responses depend primarily on the __________.
autonomic nervous system; skeletal muscles
Which of the following is true concerning Accelerated Learning techniques?
Research concerning suggestive learning techniques does not provide strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of these techniques.
Operant conditioning is also known as
Which type of neuron becomes active when we engage in observational learning?
Julie is paid based on commission, so her salary reflects a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
According to research, which of the following groups of individuals is most likely to act aggressively in adulthood?
males who watched a lot of violent television as children
Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the __________ is the unconditioned stimulus.
According to the research of David Klahr, what type of instruction/learning results in the greatest and most immediate ability to solve problems?
Which of the following is true concerning the treatment of phobias using classical conditioning?
Persons fearful of flying will need to associate flying with something pleasurable to reduce this fear.
When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as __________.
A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that __________.
signals the presence of reinforcement.
Lanissa has decided that the best way to study for her upcoming chemistry exam is to read the formulas she needs to memorize into an mp3 file on her computer, upload it to her mp3 player, and listen to it while she sleeps. She has read that it is possible to learn vast amounts of information while asleep. Unfortunately, Lanissa does not realize that there is no scientific evidence to support the concept of sleep-assisted learning. With which of the six principles of scientific thinking does Lanissa need to become familiar?
A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement involves
giving reinforcement after a specific number of responses has occurred
Which of the following terms refers to the fact that animals and human beings may be evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli that threaten their survival?
After a CS comes to elicit the CR, the CS now can be paired with a new neutral stimulus and this second neutral stimulus will start to elicit a CR. This process is called _______________.
According to the theory of classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that elicits
elicits an automatic response
If a second stimulus is presented with a stimulus that has already been conditioned, the organism being studied will develop the same response to the second stimulus as to the first. This is called ________ conditioning.
Animal trainers use ________, reinforcing behaviors that are progressively closer to the target behavior until the target behavior is achieved.
Pavlov discovered a phenomenon of classical conditioning called ________, which means that a similar stimulus can elicit the same response as the conditioned stimulus.
Which of the following distinguishes operant conditioning from classical conditioning?
The organism's response is emitted.
Most classically conditioned reactions require repeated pairings of the conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus in order to develop a relationship in the mind of the subject. Which of the following is an example of a situation in which only one trial is necessary?
conditioned taste aversion
According to Skinner, removing a stimulus in an effort to strengthen the probability of a response is using
People often have phobias about things they have little experience with, which is a challenge to the assumption of
Which of the following means having an evolutionary predisposition to fear certain stimuli over others because of their survival value?
In operant conditioning, the response of the organism to the stimulus is
Chemotherapy can cause severe nausea and an aversion to foods that might have been eaten prior to receiving this treatment. To help patients keep their taste for their usual foods, health psychologists came up with the idea of offering alternative or ________ foods to which the patient will develop a taste aversion instead.
Coulrophobia, which is relatively common, is a fear of
Sleep-assisted learning has NOT been scientifically shown to be effective, EXCEPT that sleeping subjects can be classically conditioned to respond to
Approximately what percentage of people who have a dog phobia have had a negative experience with a dog or dogs?
How someone responds to something depends on his or her interpretation of what it means. This is the underlying difference that distinguishes
Conditioned taste aversions are usually highly specific to a particular food and show little evidence of
Regarding operant conditioning, which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
A student turns in neater homework when the teacher praises neatness
Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning, she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad. Over several weeks, she notices that the dog gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys, immediately before leaving the house. Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog's behavior?
A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of _____________ to accomplish this.
conditioned taste aversion
When you learned that red lights mean "stop," and green lights mean "go," you were being trained to use a classical conditioning concept called stimulus __________.
For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in
An animal trainer is trying to teach a lion to perform tricks for circus. First the lion is given food if he sits quietly on a chair. Next the lion is given food if he raises one paw. Finally the lion is given even more food if he gives the trainer a "high-five." In this example, the lion is being trained by
Pavlov conditioned a dog to salivate at a metronome sound that was paired with a meat stimulus. After the CS-UCS linkage was strongly established, Pavlov then presented the dog with several flashes of a light followed by the metronome sound. After a few days, when the light flashes were presented by themselves, the dog salivated. This is an example of ___________.
higher order conditioning
Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?
giving a child candy for completing her hw
Which of the following is most representative of research concerning learning styles?
Certain teaching approaches seem to work best irrespective of the learning style that an individual student has.
Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?
olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her
Learning that is not directly observable is called ______.
You spend days wandering aimlessly around a park with many different paths that end at different parts of the park. One day when you arrive at the park you get a call on your cell phone from your cousin whom you haven't seen for years, and she says she is waiting for you in a particular section of the park. Even though the paths are complicated and twisted, you manage to find the shortest route to your cousin. Tolman would explain your efficient passage through the park as an example of __________.
formation of a cognitive map
Which of the following statements pertaining to the conditioned response is accurate?
The conditioned response is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
Learned behavior is less prone to extinction if it is conditioned by ________ reinforcement.
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome but not presenting the meat powder to the dogs. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called ___________________.
Omar and Patrick sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Omar is paid $1.00 for every 5 calls he makes, while Patrick is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells. Omar is paid on a _____________ schedule while Patrick is paid on a ____________schedule.
fixed ratio, variable ratio
________ was the first person to describe learning as acquired through classical conditioning while studying the digestive process of dogs.
The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called __________________.