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Foundations Final: essential terms
Terms in this set (92)
form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders who are elected by the citizens that have a right to vote
In ancient Rome, it was a member of the wealthy, privileged upper class
In ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most to the population
In ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their rights
In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government
In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up of only aristocrats
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a limited time
a division of the Roman army, usually comprising of 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback
series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.) ; resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean
A brilliant military leader strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat
Conflicts between groups within the same country
Military leader who conquered much land and became dictator of Rome
A group of 3 rulers
First triumvirate: Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey
Second triumvirate: Octavian (Augustus), Mark Anthony, and Lepidus
Octavian was called Augustus, which means exhausted one
The 207 years of peace in Rome, "Roman Peace"
Jesus' disciples that were thought to have written the gospels
The dispersal of the Jews
Roman emperor, who later ended the persecution of christians because during a battle he prayed for divine help, he then reported seeing a cross which was a symbol of Christianity. Constantine credited the success of the battle to the help of the Christian God
A priest who supervised several local churches
The father, or head of the churches
A drastic drop in value of money coupled with rise in prices
foreign soldiers who fought for money (hired to kill)
army leader who in 284 A.D. became emperor of Rome
To put Rome back in order, he....
-limited personal freedoms
-doubled size of Roman armies
-sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods
-divided empire into the Greek speaking east, and latin speaking west
Byzantium became the new capital of the Roman empire, and shifted from Rome to the east. Capital stood protected by Massive and was filled with imperial buildings modeled after those in Rome. Soon Byzantium became known as Constantinople
Battle of Constantinople
Invading Huns came to try and conquer city of Constantinople but failed. With hun's coming thought, it forced Germanic invaders in the west and they succeeded in invading it.
Powerful Hun chief who terrorized both halves of the Roman empire
The mixing elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture
Designed to bring water into Roman cities and towns. One of the most useful and known inventions of the Romans
Fall of Rome
Last Roman emperor Romulus A. was ousted by German forces in 476, and after that Roman power in the western half of the empire had disappeared. Eastern half survived and flourished for another 1,000 years, but fell to the Ottoman turks
Liu Bang ended in Qin Dynasty, and then started the Han dynasty, which ruled china for more than 400 years. Was the second imperial dynasty of China ( also referred to as the "Golden age")
Chinese philosopher and teacher who founded Confucianism
Said to be the founder of Daoism, but there is no written proof he even existed.
began/came to China:551 BCE
Basic outlook on life:Everyone should be well educated( everyone deserves an education too, doesn't matter how rich or poor), talented, honest, and fair.
-ruler to subject
-father to son
-elder brother to younger brother
-husband and wife
-friend and friend
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety is a virtue of respect for one's father, elders, and ancestors.
a system of government in which most of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
began/when it came: Fourth century BCE
basic outlook on life: To follow the Dao
purpose of life:Inner harmony and peace; longevity.
-ying and yang (balance)
Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is key to order
founder: Hanfeizi Li Si
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall.
-Ruler of the dynasty was Shi Huangdi
First emperor of China 247-210 b.c. initiated the building of the Great Wall of China, unified China
The Emperor standardized Chinese writing, bureaucracy, scholarship, law, currency, weights and measures. He expanded the Chinese empire, built a capital in Xian, a system of roads, and massive fortifications and palaces.
a system of government by one person with absolute power.
central authority controls the running of the state
government jobs civilians obtained by taking examinations
a group has exclusive control over production and distribution of certain goods
a member of a warlike Asiatic nomadic people who invaded and ravaged Europe in the 4th-5th centuries.
Islamic name for God
Believed the lord that spoke to him through Gabriel was Allah
-he began to teach that allah was the one and only god and that all other gods most be abandoned
-By 613, he began to preach publicly in Mecca
the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
a follower of the religion of Islam.
the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in June 622 CE.
a Muslim place of worship
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, also one of the five pillars
the Islamic sacred book, believed to be the word of God as dictated to Muhammad by the archangel Gabriel and written down in Arabic.
Sunnah is the way of life on the basis of the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and interpretations of the Islamic holy book, the Quran.
The code of law based on the Qur'an and hadith.
Successor or deputy
Family/ Group of people who came to power in 661 and moved capital to Damascus. Didn't follow tradition ways of Islam, lived lavish and luxuriously
one of the two main branches of Islam, followed by about a tenth of Muslims, especially in Iran, that rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards Ali, the fourth caliph, as Muhammad's first true successor.
pursued life of poverty and devotion to a spiritual path
rebel group who overthrew Umayyads, taking control in 750
muslim state in southern Spain
caliphate formed by Shi'a muslims
house of Wisdom
The House of Wisdom was a major intellectual center during the Islamic Golden Age.
decorative handwriting or handwritten lettering, form of art in the Muslim culture. It was made because it was against religion to draw Allah, so they would write about him instead
a city in Saudi Arabia that was the birthplace of Muhammad and is the holiest city of Islam
was also called Yathrib. Muhammad left Mecca because of the hostility he was experiencing, not all people wanted to be monotheistic. HE left in 622, and venture to Yathrib (Medina), this journey was later called the Hijrah.
Five Pillars of Islam
-Faith (Shahada): You must testify to this statement, "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah"
-Prayer (Salat): Five times a day, facing towards Mecca
-Alms (Zakat): You must support the less fortunate
-fasting (Sawm):During holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset
-Pilgrimage (Hajj): if physically possible and financially able, preform the Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca
landowner who granted land in exchange for services, second level of the social pyramid.
an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service
a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
beneath vassals, mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's land in exchange for fiefs
people who couldn't lawfully leave the place where they were born, peasants usually
Manor and Manor economy
Manor- Lords estate
Manor economy-an economic and social system of medieval Europe. All legal and economic power belonged to the lord of the manor, who was supported economically from his land and from contributions from the peasant population under his authority.
a peasant or worker known as a vassal received a piece of land in return for serving a lord or king, especially during times of war. Vassals were expected to perform various duties in exchange for their own fiefs, or areas of land.
a tax peasants had to pay to the church, ten percent of their income
a set of ideals for Knighthood
-knight must fight bravely in defense of three masters
-devote himself to earthly feudal lord, his heavenly lord, and his chosen lady
-protect the weak and the poor
-be brave, loyal, and courteous
-most knight thought, did not meet these requirements as they treated peasants very poorly
mock battles combining recreation with combat training
traveling poet/musician that composed short verses and songs about the joy and sorrows of romantic love
the body of all people ordained for religious duties, especially in the Christian Church.
(in the Christian Church) a ceremony regarded as imparting spiritual grace, in particular:
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
In European history, the Middle Ages, or Medieval period, lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.
When Bishop sells positions in the church
earlier cathedral style was romanesque (round aches, heavy roof, thick walls, pillars, and tiny windows), soon after Gothic architecture formed
Gothic cathedrals thrust upward (reaching for the heavens), had huge stained glass windows, sculptures, wood carvings, etc. All of these elements were meant to inspire the worshiper with the magnificence of god. 1170-1270 around 500 gothic cathedrals were built
-each of a series of medieval military expeditions made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries.
Age of Faith
Another label for the middle ages
-the Designation sometimes used to describe the medieval period (c. 1000-1500) in the Western world because of the dominance of the Roman Catholic Church and thus of the Christian faith as a spiritual, political, and intellectual force
The region generally encompassing territory from the River Jordan in the east to the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and from the Euphrates River in the north to the Gulf of Aqaba in the south, was considered the Holy Land by medieval Europeans. The city of Jerusalem was of especially sacred significance, and continues to be so, to Jews, Christians and Muslims.
kurdish warrior and Muslim leader that in 1187 gained control of Jerusalem
Long effort by the Spanish to drive the muslims out of Spain
Court held by the church to suppress heresy (belief in other religion)
Also referred to as the "Black Plague", spread through flees and rats.
-The chain reaction in a nutshell: population grew-poop and garbage everywhere because there wasn't enough room- rats started to thrive and their population grew- flees on rats carried the bubonic disease- rats bit people because they grew vicious- plague spread very quickly