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62 terms

Urinary System

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The urinary system does all of the following, except that it
regulates blood volume.
regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes.
eliminates organic waste products.
excretes excess albumen molecules.
contributes to stabilizing blood pH.
excretes excess albumen molecules
The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by
adjusting the volume of water lost, releasing erythropoietin,and by releasing renin
The kidney does all of these except __________.
secreting excess albumin
regulating plasma electrolytes
regulating blood volume
helping stabilize blood pH
secreting excess albumin
Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the
ureter.
urinary bladder.
kidney.
urethra.
rectum.
rectum
Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
the ureters
Urine is eliminated through the
urethra
Urine is carried from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body by the ________.
urethra
Nephrons located close to the medulla with long nephron loops are called ________.
juxtamedullary nephrons
The renal sinus is
an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule
Major calyces are
large branches of the renal pelvis
The filtration of plasma takes place in the
renal corpuscle
All of the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are
located partly within the pelvic cavity.
located in a position that is retroperitoneal.
held in place by the renal fascia.
surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
covered by peritoneum.
located partly within the pelvic cavity
The outermost layer of the kidney is the
fibrous capsule
Renal columns are
bundles of tissue that extend between the pyramids from the cortex
The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
distal convoluted tubule
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water
The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
nephron loop (loop of Henle)
A glomerulus is
a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.

1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery
4. renal artery
5. glomerulus
6. cortical radiate artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary

The proper order in which blood passes through these vessels is
renal artery -> interlobar artery -> arcuate artery -> cortical radial artery -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillary
Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
efferent arteriole
The left kidney lies ________ to the right kidney.
superior
The kidneys are retroperitoneal, and the renal arteries branch directly off the abdominal aorta.
both parts of the statement are true
The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the
hilum
________ is an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.
glomerulonephritis
Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the lumen in the PCT is largely by means of
cotransport
The process of filtration occurs at
glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
A transport mechanism that can move a substance against a concentration gradient by using cellular energy is ________.
active transport
In the process of ________ two substances are moved across a cell membrane in the same direction without directly using cellular energy. One of the substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by this process.
cotransport
Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except
urea.
creatinine.
amino acids.
hydrogen ions.
proteins.
proteins
Which of these hormones causes the kidney to increase the body's content of sodium?
aldosterone
In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions
A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
absence of ADH
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?
transcellular
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
Agents that increase urine excretion are known as
diuretics
The kidneys not only remove waste products from the blood, they also assist in the regulation of
blood pH.
blood ion levels.
blood volume.
blood pressure.
all of the above
all of the above
Renal blood flow is about
1 L/min
Insoluble deposits that form within the urinary tract from calcium salts, magnesium salts, or uric acid are called kidney stones or renal ________.
calculi
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
transitional
The detrusor muscle
compresses the urinary bladder and expels its contents into the urethra
An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is
renal failure
Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following, except
a decline in the number of functional nephrons.
loss of sphincter muscle tonus.
problems with the micturition reflex.
increased sensitivity to ADH.
a reduction in the GFR (glomerular filtration rate)
increased sensitivity to ADH
The area of the urinary bladder bounded by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the ________.
trigone
________ is an inherited abnormality that affects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
Polycystic kidney disease
The major calices drain into the
renal pelvis
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
sodium
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
Na+-H+ countertransport
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
The condition called ________ is especially dangerous because the ureters or renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement.
floating kidney
The ________ is a capillary plexus that parallels the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
vasa recta
The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
renal pelvis
What areas are sensitive to the hormone ADH?
distal convoluted tubule, collecting system
Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium
streptococcus
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following, except
produce renal ischemia.
trigger renin release.
increase the glomerular filtration rate.
produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles.
increase the glomerular filtration rate and trigger renin release.
increase the glomerular filtration rate
One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
increase secretion of renin by juxtaglomerular complex
A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to
less secretion of aldosterone, increased urinary loss of sodium, and reduction of blood pressure
The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate).
both statements are true
The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate).
Both are true and relate to production of a dilute urine.
When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
more urine is produced and the osmolarity of the urine decreases
ADH
increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water.
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
relies on countercurrent multiplication, creates high interstitial NaCl concentration, and enables production of hypertonic urine