67 terms

# Physics Final Review - Vocabulary

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velocity
speed with direction
force
a push or pull
impulse
change in momentum
Newtons First Law
Newton's ____ law says that an object in motion stays in motion at a constant velocity, and and object at rest stays at rest unless acted on by a net force.
Newtons Second Law
Newton's ____ law explains the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration.
Newtons Third Law
Newton's ____ law says that forces always come in pairs of equal strength and opposite direction.
mass
The amount of matter that makes up an object.
power
The rate of doing work or using energy
vector
a measurement that includes direction
scalar
a measurement that does not include direction
magnitude
size or amount
weight
the force of gravity on an object
momentum
depends on an object's mass and velocity
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
energy that is stored
work
done when force is applied and an object moves a distance
displacement
shortest path between two points, including direction
inelastic collisions
two objects collide together & stick, momentum is added together
elastic collisions
two objects collide together & bounce off each other, momentums get switched
inertia ( due to mass )
how easy/ hard it is to change a object's motion
acceleration
rate at which velocity changes
Net Force
total of all forces on an object
Equilibrium
when net force equals zero
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Conservation of Momentum
momentum cannot be created or destroyed
Centripetal
force that pulls an object toward the center of a circle
Conduction
transfer of heat by direct contact
Convection
transfer of heat by motion of gases and liquids ( rising and falling )
transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves (infrared)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
( LEAST TO GREATEST frequency )
-Microwaves
-Infrared
-Visible
-Ultraviolet
-X-Ray
-Gamma Ray
Specific Heat
amount of heat energy it takes to heat up 1 kg of a substance by 1 degree celsius
Cycle, Oscillation, Vibration
back and forth motion at a regular speed
Crest
top of a wave
Trough
bottom of a wave
Frequency
the number of cycles in one second
Period
how much time per cycle
Amplitude
how far the wave goes from the equilibrium
Wavelength
length of one wave, crest to crest or trough to trough
Mechanical Waves
waves that need a medium to travel
(example: sound travels through air)
Electromagnetic Waves
waves that do not a medium to travel
Constructive Interference
when two waves add up to make a bigger wave
Destructive Interference
when two waves cancel out each other
Doppler Effect
an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound, light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other.
Transverse Wave
when medium vibrates perpendicular to the direction the energy travels
Longitudinal Wave
when medium vibrates parallel to the direction the energy travels
Absorption
when a wave's energy gets absorbed by another object
Reflection
when the wave bounces off an object
Refraction
when the wave gets bent when moving from one material to another
Diffraction
when the wave spreads out after going around a barrier
Charging by Friction
two insulators rub together; electrons get transferred from one to another
Charging by Contact
when a charged object makes contact with a neutral object and charges get transferred
Charging by Induction
when you induce a charged separation in an object & then remove half the charges & leave the other half
Polarization
when you make a neutral object separate its charges
Voltage
the chemical potential energy per charge
Current
flow of charges through a circuit
Resistance
measure of how easy/hard it is for current to flow
Series Circuit
has one path for current to flow
Parallel Circuit
has multiples paths ( branches ) for current to flow
Electromagnet
when a magnet is created by the flow electricity
Newton's Law of Gravitation
the force of gravity is affected by the masses of two objects & by the squared distance between them
Electric Force
the force is affected by the charge of the two objects & the squared distance
Harmonic Motion
motion that repeats itself in cycles
Motor
converts electrical energy into kinetic (mechanical) energy
Generator
converts kinetic (mechanical) energy into electrical energy
Temperature
average kinetic energy of molecules in a substance
Thermal Energy ("Internal Energy")
total kinetic energy within a substance
Heat
flow of thermal energy (moves from hot to cold)