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62 terms

AP Human Geography Chapters 4-7

STUDY
PLAY
Custom
a repeptitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes characteristics of that group
Folk Culture
Traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogeneous froups living in isolated rural settings
Habit
a repetitive act of an induvidual
Popular Culture
Found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Taboo
restrictions on behavior imposed by social custom
British Recieved Pronunciation (BRP)
the recognized standard form of British speech
Creolized Language
a language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Dialect
A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Ebonics
A distinct dialect in the English language. A way that many blacks in America have preserved their linguistic heritage. Is a combination of ebony and phonics.
Extinct Language
Languages that are no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world.
Franglais
The combination of the French and English language.
Ideograms
Written languages that represent ideas or concepts rather than specific pronunciations.
Isogloss
A word usage boundary drawn on the geographic landscape.
Isolated Language
A language unrelated to any other and therefore not attached to any language family. They arise from the lack of interaction with speakers of other languages.
Language
A system of communication through speech.
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousands of years ago. Exist within language families.
Language Family
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed before recorded history.
Language Group
A collection of languages within branches that share a common origin in the relatively recent past.
Lingua Franca
A language of international communication.
Literary Tradition
A system of written communication.
Official Language
The designated and recognized language of a country. Would be used in government and government documents.
Pidgin Language
A simplified form of a lingua franca.
Spanglish
Created by the English language diffusing into the Spanish language.
Standard Language
The recognized form of the proper dialect of a language. This dialect is the most widely recognized and well established as most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication.
Vulgar Latin
Spoken by the people of the Roman provinces during the age of the Roman Empire. Not proper Latin.
Animism
The belief that inanimate objects (stones, plants, etc) contain spirits and a conscious life. Can be found primarily in African and Native American religions.
Autonomous Religion
A religious group which is self sufficient, meaning their interaction with other religious communities is confined to little more than loose cooperation and shared ideas. Islam and Protestant denominations can be good examples.
Branch
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Caste
The social structure or class system and distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu has been assigned, according to religious law. This determines every aspect of a person's life (work, marriage, table partners, etc).
Cosomology
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations.
Diocese
The basic unit of area administered by the Roman Catholic Church. It is overseen by a bishop.
Ethnic Religion
Appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place. Will not seek converts
Fundamentalism
The literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion.
Ghetto
Historically, the part of a European city where Jewish people were forced to live.
Hierarchical Religon
A religion that has a well defined geographic structure that organizes territory into local administrative units.
Missionary
People who carried the message of Jesus Christ along the Roman Empire's protected sea routes and excellent road networks. Today, the member of any religion whose purpose is to gain converts to their religion.
Monothesim
The belief in one god.
Pagan
The word for the follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
Pilgrimage
A religious journey, typically to the holy site of a religion.
Polythesim
the belief in multiple gods
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Solsitice
A day of religious significance in some ethnic religions because of its relationship to nature, the sun, and the moon.
Universalizing Religion
Attempt to be a global religion, appealing to all people. Will seek converts.
Apartheid
The physical separation of different racial groups into different geographic areas. Most prominently practiced in the country of South Africa.
Balkanization
The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized
Term widely used to describe a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex and long-standing antagonisms toward each other.
Blockbusting
A tactic used by real estate agents in the United States by which they would scare white families into selling their homes for low prices by convincing them that black families were moving into the neighborhood and would cause house values to decline. The agents would then sell the home at a higher price to a black family, looking to move out of lower income areas.
Centripetal Force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for the state.
Ethnic Cleansing
The process by which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogenous region. The purpose is to rid the entire area of different ethnic groups.
Ethnicity
Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.
Multi-Ethnic State
A state in which many ethnicities all contribute cultural features to the formation of a single nationality.
Multinational State
States which contain two ethnic groups with traditions of self determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nationalism
Promotes a sense of national consciousness that exalts one nation above all others.
Nationality
The identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country.
Nation-State
A territory which corresponds to a particular ethnicity, or people group.
Race
The identity of a person with a group of people who share a biological ancestor.
Racsim
The belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial difference produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist
A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Self-Determination
The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sharecropper
Someone who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Triangular Slave Trade
Term used to describe the slave exchange from West Africa to North America during the colonial period of North America.