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The conditions or influences that are not a part of the agent or host, but influence their interactions
Portal of Entry
Pathway into the host that gives the agent access to tissue where it can multiply or act
Occurrence of more cases of disease than would normally be expected in a specific place or group of people over a given period of time
Retrospective comparison of exposures of persons with disease to those of persons without the disease
Prospective of exposed and non-exposed defined groups, with a comparison of disease rates during the time covered
A relationship in which change in amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is associated with a change - either an increase or decrease - in risk of a specific outcome
The number of new cases of illness commencing, or of persons falling ill, during a specified time period in a given population
The proportion of persons with a particular disease within a given population at a given time
The possible outcomes of a disease or condition and the likelihood that each one will occur
The ratio of the probability of developing, in a specified period of time, an outcome among those receiving treatment or exposed to a risk factor, compared with the probability of developing the outcome if the risk factor or intervention is not present
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