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Allison APUSH American Pageant-U6
Terms in this set (64)
This date was September 24, 1869. Jim Fisk and Jay Gould plotted to corner the gold market. The conspirators worked on President Grant directly and also through his brother-in-law, who received $25,000 for his complicity. On this day, Fisk and Gould madly bid the price of gold skyward, while scores of honest businesspeople were driven were driven to the wall and went bankrupt.
William Marcy Tweed was the leader of the Tweed Ring in New York City. He employed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to milk the city of as much as $200 million. Honest citizens were cowed into silence. Protesters found their tax assessments raised. In 1871, Tweed's wrongdoings were brought to the public eye. He was eventually put in prison.
Crédit Mobilier Scandal
In 1872, Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Crédit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad, earning dividends as high as 348%. A newspaper exposé and congressional investigation of the scandal led to the formal censure of two congressmen and the revelation that the vice president had accepted payments from Crédit Mobilier.
In 1874-1875, the Whiskey Ring robbed the Treasury of millions in excise-tax revenue. "Let no guilty man escape." declared President Grant. But when his own private secretary turned up among the culprits, he volunteered a written statement to the jury that helped exonerate the thief.
Crime of '73
Congress formally dropped the coinage of silver dollars in 1873 because silver miners stopped selling to the federal mints. This is because the government insisted that silver remain valued at 1/16th that of gold when actually the value was much higher. New silver discoveries shot production up and brought the price of silver down. Westerners from silver-mining states joined with debtors in assailing the "Crime of '73," demanding a return to the "Dollar of Our Daddies." The Crime of '73 was a demand for the minting of silver coins again and was another scheme to promote inflation.
This was a sarcastic name given to the three-decade long post-Civil War era by Mark Twain in 1873.
They were a Republican faction led by Roscoe "Lord Roscoe" Conkling, a U.S. senator from New York. The Stalwarts believed in the time-honored system of swapping civil-service jobs for votes. Conkling and Blaine succeeded only in stalemating each other and deadlocking their party.
They were a Republican faction opposed to the Stalwarts. They were led by James G. Blaine, a U.S. congressman from Maine. The Half-breeds pretended to embrace civil-service reform but their main opposition to the Stalwarts was over who should grasp the ladle that dished out the spoils. Conkling and Blaine succeeded only in stalemating each other and deadlocking their party.
Compromise of 1877
In the election of 1877, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden ran against each other. Tilden managed 184 of the needed 185 electoral votes. There were disputed returns from three southern states who all submitted two sets of returns; one each of Democrat and Republican. The electoral commission delegated to count the ballots had a majority (of one) Republicans and chose to accept Florida's Republican ballot returns. The Democrats were outraged but, smelling defeat, proposed a compromise position. They reluctantly agreed that Hayes might take office in return for his withdrawing intimidating federal troops from the two states in which they remained. Louisiana and South Carolina. Among the various concessions, the Republicans assured the Democrats a place at the presidential patronage trough and support for a bill subsidizing the Texas and Pacific Railroad's construction of a transcontinental line. So close was the margin of safety that the explosive issue was settled only three days before the new president was officially sworn into office.
Plessy v. Ferguson
The Supreme Court validated the South's segregationist social order in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). It ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark
With the Chinese Exclusion Act in effect, some exclusionists even tried to strip native-born Chinese-Americans of their citizenship, but the Supreme Court ruled in U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark in 1898 that the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed citizenship to all persons born in the United States. This doctrine of "birthright citizenship" (or jus soli, the "right of the soil," as contrasted with jus sanguinis, the "right of blood-tie," which based citizenship on the parent's nationality) provided important protections to Chinese-Americans as well as to other immigrant communities.
Civil Service Commission
The Pendleton Act of 1883 (sometimes referred to as the Magna Cart of civil-service reform) established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of competitive examinations rather than "pull" (what you know versus who you know).
This was an organization of frustrated farmers in the great agricultural belts of the West and South that helped create the People's Party in 1892.
At Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant near Pittsburgh, PA in 1892, company officials called in three hundred armed Pinkerton detectives in July to crush a strike by steel workers angry over pay cuts. Defiant strikers, armed with rifles and dynamite, forced their assailants to surrender after a vicious battle that left ten people dead and some sixty wounded. Troops were eventually summoned, and both strike and the union were broken.
Union Pacific Railroad
The Union Pacific was commissioned by Congress to go westward from Omaha, Nebraska. For each mile of track constructed, the company was granted 20 square miles of land, alternating in 640-acre sections on either side of the track. For each mile the builders received a generous federal loan, ranging from $16,000 on the flat prairie land to $48,000 for mountainous country. Laying of rails began in earnest after the Civil War ended in 1865. Insiders of the Credit Mobilier construction company pocketed $73 million for some $50 million of construction, bribing congressmen to look the other way. Construction gangs contained many Irish "Paddies" who had fought in the Union army. On one record-breaking day, a sledge-and-shovel army of some five thousand men laid ten miles of track.
Central Pacific Railroad
This railroad line pushed eastward from Sacramento, CA, over and through the Sierra Nevada mountains. Four farseeing men (the so-called Big Four) were the chief backers of the enterprise and included Leland Stanford as well as Collis P. Huntington. The Central Pacific was granted the same subsidies and made massive profits but the Big Four did not practice bribery of congressmen. Some ten thousand Chinese laborers worked on the Central Pacific. AA "wedding of the rails" was finally consummated near Ogden (Promontory Point), Utah in 1869. Completion of the transcontinental line welded the West Coast more firmly to the Union and facilitated a flourishing trade with Asia.
Until the 1880's, every town had it's own local time, dictated by the sun's position. For railroad operators worried about keeping schedules and avoiding wrecks, this patchwork of local times was a nightmare. On November 18, 1883, the major rail lines decreed that the continent would henceforth be divided into four "time zones."
Interstate Commerce Act
Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887. It prohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openly. It also forbade unfair discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for a short haul than for a long one over the same line. It also set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the new legislation.
Andrew Carnegie practiced vertical integration, which combined into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. His goal was to improve efficiency by making supplies more reliable, controlling the quality of the product at all stages of production, and eliminating middlemen's fees.
This meant allying with competitors to monopolize a given market. Rockefeller was a master of this stratagem.
Capital Goods/Consumer Goods
Capital goods are things made to be used for making other things. Consumer goods (like shoes and clothes) are made to be sold to individuals.
Born in Scotland, he came to the U.S. in 1848. His first job was as a bobbin boy for $1.20 a week. He accumulated some capital and went into the steel business in the Pittsburgh area. By 1900 he was producing one-fourth of the nation's Bessemer steel. He was making about $25 million a year at that time. He contributed $60 million for construction of public libraries all over the country.
Rockefeller came to dominate the oil industry. In 1870, he organized the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, nucleus of the great trust formed in 1882. Locating his refineries in Cleveland, he sought to eliminate the middlemen and squeeze out competitors. By 1877, Rockefeller controlled 95% of all the oil refineries in the country. Rockefeller's oil monopoly did turn out a superior product at a relatively cheap price. It achieved important economies both at home and abroad, by its large-scale methods of production and distribution.
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie believed that the wealthy, entrusted with society's riches, had to prove themselves morally responsible according to a "Gospel of Wealth."
William Graham Sumner and Social Darwinism
Sumner was a Social Darwinist who said that "the millionaires are a product of natural selection", following the survival-of-the-fittest theories of Charles Darwin.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
This act (law) passed in 1890 forbade combinations in restraint of trade, without any distinction between good trusts and bad trusts. The law proved ineffective, largely because it little bite to it and it contained legal loopholes through which clever corporation lawyers could wriggle. Contrary to its original intent, it was used to curb labor unions that were deemed to be restraining trade.
A magazine image of an independent and athletic "new woman" created in the 1890's by the artist Charles Dana Gibson, it became the romantic ideal of the age. This image inspired new standards of female fashion as the twentieth century opened and came to symbolize women's growing independence and assertiveness.
A corporation might even own the company town, with its high priced grocery stores and "easy" credit. Often the worker sank into perpetual debt -a status that strongly resembled serfdom.
Knights of Labor
They picked up where the NLU left off. Officially known as The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, it began inauspiciously in 1869 as a secret society, with a private ritual, passwords, and a special handshake. Secrecy, which continued until 1881, would forestall possible reprisals by employers. The Knights sought to include all workers in one big union. The Knights welcomed all...except for liquor dealers, professional gamblers, lawyers, bankers, and stockbrokers, who were all considered "non-producers." They refused to get involved in politics and focused, instead, on economic and social reform, including producer's cooperatives and codes for safety and health. They campaigned for the eight-hour working day. The KoL eventually lost the support of the high-class craft unionists who deserted the union and formed the American Federation of Labor. By the 1890's the union had dropped to roughly 100,000 members who joined other protest groups.
America Federation of Labor
It was created in 1886, largely the brainchild of Samuel Gompers. It consisted of an association of self-governing national unions, each of which kept its own independence, with the AF of L unifying overall strategy. Non individual laborer as such could join the central organization. When Gompers was the leader of the AF of L, the union shunned politics and socialism. The AF of L focused upon better wages, hours, and working conditions. The AF of L did not concern itself with unskilled workers, including women and blacks. By 1900, the organization had a membership of about 500,000. Critics referred to it as the "labor trust."
This meant that an employer used only or all union labor.
These were mail-order houses that replaced the rural general store in the late nineteenth century.
She was one of the first generation of college-educated women. Inspired by a visit to England, in 1889 she acquired the decaying Hull House, the most prominent (though not the first) American settlement house. She became a kind of urban American saint in the eyes of many admirers. She was a broad-gauge reformer who courageously condemned war as well as poverty and she eventually won the Nobel Peace Prize. But her pacifism also earned her the enmity of some Americans, including the Daughters of the American Revolution, who choked on her antiwar views and expelled her from membership in their organization.
These were the southern and eastern European immigrants that came to the United States between 1880 and 1920.
They viewed the eastern and southern Europeans as culturally and religiously exotic hoards and often gave them a rude reception. "Native" Americans blamed the immigrants for the degradation of urban government. Trade unionists assailed the immigrants for their willingness to work for "starvation" wages that seemed to them to be princely sums and for bringing the dangerous doctrines of socialism, communism, and anarchism into the country. The American Protective Association, created in 1887, urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates. Organized labor found the wage-depressed immigrants hard to unionize because of the language barrier and argued that American workers were entitled to protection from foreign laborers.
He was an English naturalist who wrote On the Origin of Species, a highly controversial book, published in 1859. He set forth in lucid form the sensational theory that humans had slowly from lower forms of life—a theory that was soon summarized to mean "the survival of the fittest."
These were the Conservatives that stood firmly on the Scripture as the inspired and infallible Word of God and they condemned what they thought was the "bestial hypothesis" of the Darwinians.
They parted company with the Fundamentalists and flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety as either history or science.
Public schools excluded millions of adults. This deficiency was partly remedied by the Chautauqua movement, a successor to the lyceums, which was launched in 1874 on the shores of Lake Chautauqua in New York. The organizers achieved gratifying success through the nationwide public lectures, often held in tents and featuring well-known speakers, including Mark Twain. In addition, there were extensive Chautauqua courses of home study, for which 100,000 people enrolled in 1892 alone.
Booker T. Washington
He was an ex-slave who, in 1881, headed the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. He taught black students useful trades so that they could gain self-respect and economic security. Washington's self-help approach to solving the racial problems was labeled "accomodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy. Washington avoided the issue of social equality and accepted segregation in return for the right to devope the economic and educational resources of the black community.
He called Booker T. Washington an "Uncle Tom" who was condemning their race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. He earned a Ph.D. at Harvard, the first of his race to achieve this goal. He demanded complete equality for blacks, social as well as economic, and helped found the NAACP. Rejecting, Washington's gradualism and separatism, he demanded that the "talented tenth" of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life.
Morrill Act of 1862
This act (law) provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for public education. "Land grant colleges" most of which became state universities, turn bound themselves to provide certain services, such as military training. Washington State University and the Northwest Indian College are both "land grant" colleges in Washington.
Joseph Pulitzer's use of colored comic supplements in his newspaper, featuring the "Yellow Kid," gave the name to his lurid sheets.
Also known as "Holy Horatio", he was a Puritan-reared New Englander who gave up the pulpit to become an author. His stock formula for the more than a hundred volumes was that virtue, honesty, and industry are rewarded by success, wealth, and honor—a kind of survival of the purest, especially nonsmokers, nondrinkers, nonswearers, and nonliars.
Born Samuel Clemens, he typified a new breed of American authors in revolt against the refinements of the old New England school of writers. Twain wrote Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as well as The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and The Innocents Abroad.
N. A. W. S. A.
It was founded in 1890 by militant suffragists. Its founders included Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
It was organized in 1874. Its symbol was the white ribbon and its guiding lights was Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation.
Fully one-fifth of all U.S. Army personnel on the frontier were African-American—they were given this name by the Indians, supposedly because of the resemblance of their hair to the bison's furry coat.
Dawes Severalty Act
This act dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian families with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved themselves like "good white settlers," they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship, in twenty-five years. The probationary period was later extended, but full citizenship was granted to all Indians in 1924. Reservation land not allotted to the Indians under the Dawes Act was to be sold to railroads and white settlers, with the proceeds used by the federal government to educate and civilize the native peoples. The Dawes Act struck directly at tribal organization and tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians. This legislation ignored the inherent reliance of traditional Indian culture on tribally held land, literally pulling the land out from under them.
Knights of the Saddle
These were cowpunchers or cowboys. About five thousand were African American.
This act was passed in 1862. It allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land (a quarter section) by living on it for five years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30.
Frederick Jackson Turner
In 1890, the superintendent of the census announced that for the first time in America's experience, a frontier line was no longer discernable. The closing of the frontier inspired one of the most influential essays ever written about American history, The Significance of the Frontier in American History, in 1893. This historian argued that the frontier experience molded both region and nation. Not only the West, he insisted, but the national character had been uniquely shaped by the westward movement. What forces, he now asked, would shape a distinctive American national character, now that the testing ground of the frontier had been plowed and tamed?
These farmers were specialists as well as business people. As cogs in the vast industrial machine, these farmers were intimately tied to banking, railroading, and manufacturing. They had to buy expensive machinery in order to plant and harvest their crops. Widespread use of such costly equipment naturally called for first class management. But farmers, often unskilled as business people, were inclined to blame banks and railroads or the volatility of the global marketplace rather than their own shortcomings.
Embattled Grangers also went into politics. Through state legislation, they strove to regulate railway rates and the storage fees charged by railroads and the operators of warehouses.
Out of the Farmer's Alliances a new political party emerged in the early 1890's—the People's Party. Better known as the Populists, these frustrated farmers attacked Wall Street and the "money trust." They called for the nationalizing the railroads, telephone, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal "subtreasury" for farmer loans. They also wanted the free and unlimited coinage of silver. In 1892 the Populists had jolted the traditional parties by winning several congressional seats and polling more than 1 millions votes for their presidential candidate, James B. Weaver.
These were the new crusaders who waged war on monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice. The progressive army was large, diverse, and widely deployed, but it had a single battle cry: Strengthen the state. "The real heart of the movement," explained one progressive reformer, was "to use government as an agency of human welfare."
These were the bright, young, and zealous reports of such magazines as McClure's, Cosmopolitan, Collier's, and Everybody's. These reporters were part of the Progressive's reform movement. They dug up the dirt on all sorts of problems. Henry Demarest Lloyd—Standard Oil Company, Thorstein Veblen—predatory wealth and conspicuous consumption, Jacob A. Riis—New York slum, Theodore Dreiser—promoters and profiteers, Lincoln Steffens—corrupt alliances between big business and municipal government, Ida M. Tarbell—Standard Oil Company, Thomas W. Lawson—stock market practices, David G. Phillips—corrupt congressmen, Ray Stannard Baker—subjugation of blacks, John Spargo—abuse of child labor, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley—patent medicines, Upton Sinclair—meatpacking and processing.
Muller v. Oregon
Crusading attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies.
Lockner v. New York
This Supreme Court case invalidated a New York law establishing a ten-hour day for bakers. This was a setback for the Progressives.
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
In 1911 in New York City, locked doors and other flagrant violations of the fire code turned the factory into a death trap. One hundred forty-six workers were incinerated or leapt to their deaths from eight or ninths story windows. The New York legislature passed much stronger laws regulating the hours and conditions of sweatshop toil. By 1917 thirty states had put workers' compensation laws on the books providing insurance to workers injured in industrial accidents.
Theodore Roosevelt demanded a "Square Deal" for capital, labor, and the public at large. Broadly speaking, the president's program embraced three C's: control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
Good Trusts/Bad Trusts
Roosevelt believed that the industrial trusts, with their efficient means of production, had arrived to stay. He concluded that there were good trusts with public consciences, and bad trusts, which lusted greedily for power. He was determined to respond to the popular outcry against the trusts but was also determined not to indiscriminately smash all large businesses.
He wrote the novel, The Jungle, which was published in 1906. In it, he intended to focus attention on the plight of the workers in the canning factories. Instead, he appalled the public with descriptions of disgustingly unsanitary food products. This book helped spur the passage of the Meat Inspection Act by Congress in 1906. As a companion to the Meat Inspection Act, the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 was designed to prevent adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
This was the name given President Taft's foreign policy. The government encouraged Wall Street bankers to put their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the United States, especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal. By preempting investors from rival countries, such as Germany, New York bankers would thus strengthen American defenses and foreign policies, while bringing further prosperity to their homeland—and to themselves. China's Manchuria was the object of Taft's most spectacular effort to inject the reluctant dollar into the Far Eastern theater.
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