2015 final exam science (study)
Terms in this set (116)
What does the Ph scale tell you about different solutions?
it tells the acidity and Ph levels of the solution.
What does the litmus paper tell you about different solutions?
Litmus paper tells you if the solution is an acid or a base (alkaline)
how are the Ph scale and litmus paper similar and different?
They both tell whether each solution is an acid or not. One only tells whether its an acid or not (litmus) and the other also tells the Ph (Ph scale)
What happens when red litmus paper is placed in an acid? when its placed in a base?
When red litmus paper is in acid it stays the same. in a base it turns blue
What happens when blue litmus paper is placed in a base? when its placed in an acid?
blue litmus paper in a base stays blue. In an acid it turns red
What are the 5 signs that there was a chemical reaction in our 6 different reactions?
Bubbles, Precipitate, temperature,color,light
what is an endothermic reaction ? What is an exothermic reaction? what is a precipitate?
feels cold, absorbs energy (endo) heats up, releases energy (exo)
What is conservation of mass?
during a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed. The same matter is there all the time
Why didnt the experiment support conservation of mass
The substances were either lessened or made larger, thus breaking the idea of conservation of mass.
What could what could you do to support conservation of mass if gas is formed in the product.
Measure the mass of the gas and the leftover substances
A starting material in a chemical reaction
A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
a way to describe a chemical reaction using chemical formulas and other symbols
Chemical transformation or change; the interaction of chemical entities.
A number placed in front of a formula in an equation to indicate the number of molecules of a substance
a substance that includes more than one type of element and/or compound that are not bonded together.
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
a substance whose smallest particles include more than one element chemically bonded together
Is anything that takes up space and weighs something (has mass.)
made from simple chemical substances known as elements
The smallest piece of an element
How many natural occurring elements on earth
are made of two or more atoms that have combined.
most _____ are made of combinations of atoms from several elements
When two or more elements have combined.
molecules in a ______ are very close together and vibrate in place.
Molecules in a _______ are touching each other but can move about
Molecules in a ________ are spread far apart and move rapidly
Most of the matter that you see, such as water or salt, exists in the form of ___________
If you increase the ________, molecules will move faster.
a bond formed between atoms through the sharing or transferring of electrons
a type of chemical bond formed by shared electrons
a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
identifies the number and the elements of each type of atom in a compound.
An atom that has an electron charge different from zero
a bond that transfers an electron from one atom to another
a mixture of two or more substances that is uniform at the molecular level
a solution of two or more solids
the component of a solution that is present in the greatest amount
any component of a solution other than the solvent
to separate and disperse a solid into individual particles in the presence of a solvent
The amount of solute that can be dissolved in a specific volume of solvent under certain conditions
A substance is insoluble in a particular solvent if it does not dissolve in that solvent
a solution is saturated if it contains as much solute as the solvent can dissolve
The ration of solute to solvent in a solution.
occurs when a solution has the maximum concentration of dissolved solute
having a concentration greater than the maximum solubility and is unstable
describes a molecule that has charge seperation like water.
Examples of solutions
vinegar and water
An example of an alloy
Types of mixtures
Heterogeneous and Homogeneous
Mixtures in which different substances can easily distinguished
A mixture in which two or more substances are uniformly spread out.
How to increase surface area
Breaking up a solid into powder allows more solvent to come into contact with solute
Increase temperature speeds up causing the to bump each other breaking apart and coming into contact with the solvent.
maximum amount of a solute that can be dissoved in a given amount of solvent at a temperature
The percent of a solute in a solvent per the solutions volume
Concentrated large amounts of solute in a solvent
Dilute small amounts of solute in a solvent
concentration levels of solutions
saturated unsaturated supersaturated
able to dissolve in more solute at a given temperature
The substance that dissolves particles in a solution is called the __________
The substance that is dissolved in a solution is called ______________
A mixture of two or more substances that is uniform at the molecular level is called a(n)_____
A solution of two or more metals is known as a(n)___________
Two protons and two neutrons
A water molecule is an example of a(n) molecule
water is a polar molecule
A region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.
Electron moving around a nucleus
What would happen to the solubility of potassium chloride in water as the water temperature increased from 25 degrees Celsius to 75 degress Celsius
The solute would be easier to dissolve.
What are two ways to increase the dissolving rate of sugar in water?
stirring the sugar and increase the surface area (smash it)
Water is described as polar molecule because
it has a positive and negative pole
Water is a solvent in which solution?
saline salt solution
What does PPM stand for?
Parts per million
How would fish in a lake be affected if large amounts of hot water from a factory were released into the lake.
The fish in the lake would move downward nearer to the cold water.
When you open a can of room temperature soda, why is it more likely to fizz than a can that has been refrigerated?
The colder the drink is,
What happens to a supersaturated solution when more solute is added?
the excess solvent will be pushed out
solution for concentration
mass of solute/total mass of solution x100%
the following are solutions:
steel, ocean water, 24-karat gold, orange soda.
the following is not a solution:
muddy water. (not individual molecules, still has clumps of dirt)
the solvent and solute for saltwater is _______
water and salt
the solvent and solute for seltzer water is ______
seltzer tablets and water
the solvent and solute for lemonade made with powder mix is _______
powder lemonade and water
give an example of a solution in which the solute is not a solid and the solvent is not a liquid
sterling silver is liquid silver and other parts metal
when can you say that a solute has dissolved
when the solution is saturated.
describe exactly how you would make 100 grams of a saltwater solution that is 20% salt. in your description, tell how many grams of salt and how many grams of water you would need.
why is water often called the universal solvent?
The way water is constructed makes it a great way to dissolve powders and smaller solids like sugar and salt. it has a positive and a negative pole
what is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
A compound is multiple chemically bonded atoms and a mixture is
Give one example of a compound and one example of a mixture
O2Fe3 (compound) saltwater (mixture)
how many atoms of Chlorine are in the carbon tetra chloride molecule CCl 4?
write a chemical formula for a compound that has two atoms of oxygen and three atoms of iron.
how many atoms of hydrogen are in a molecule of acetic acid
chemical bonds form because:
the atoms have _____ energy bonded together than separated
the action or process of moving or being moved
the property of matter by which it retains its state of rest or at constant velocity along a straight line so long as it is not acted upon by an external force. Primary manifestation (demonstration) of mass.
The forces pushing (or pulling) an object in one direction are the same size as the forces acting in the opposite direction. Net Force = 0;
a body of coherent matter, usually of indefinite shape and often of considerable size
Something that does work or causes a change
When the forces on an object are pushing harder in one direction than in another, causing movement. Net Force ≠ 0
the speed of something in a given direction. Units m/s
increase in the rate or velocity of something. Units m/s^2
The natural force of attraction between two objects.
An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
First Law of Motion
Newton's second law
Force is the product of mass and acceleration
Newton's third law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
length to cover over a period of time
amount of land or anything moved in a given time
speed at any instant in time
same speed at any time
average speed over any distance
force pulling all objects down
positive and negative accelerationi
deceleration(negative) and acceleration(positive)
Why different elements emit different color flames.
different amounts of protons and electrons are emitted.
balanced chemical equation
chemical equation with the same number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation