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HIST 202 Final - Carver
Terms in this set (64)
Sexually liberated women during the 1920s. Looked for immediate gratification. Significantly less women voted and more birth control was taken.
automobiles allowed for more petting parties.
Klu Klux Klan
Revival: 5million members by mid 20s. Politically involved. Hate towards religion now (Jews and Catholics)
The First Red Scare
The fear that communism would take over America, especially after the rise of the Bolsheviks in Russia. Many Americans were afraid of any communistic ties, which led to Mitchell Palmer hunting down many suspected socialists and anarchists, the formation of the KKK, and anti-foreigner acts.
The National Origins Acts of 1924
US federal laaw limiting the annual number of immigrants who could enter the US. Primarily target to limit Southern and Eastern Eurpeans and also Arabs, Asians and Indians.
Argued for the return of Africa. Blacked owned businesses showed be supported by blacks. Racial Pride and rejected integration. Deported back to Jamaica
The Scopes "Monkey Trial"
1925; teacher John Scopes on trial for teaching evolution; raised countrywide debate on whether people believed in evolution or creationism
Warren G. Harding
29th President of the United States (1921-1923). A Republican from Ohio. promised return to normality after WW1 used efforts of make no enemies during his presdiency. scandals affected his presidency such as the Ohio Gang that had to do with financial jobs that he offered his friends. Died into his presidency.
quoted by Warren G. Harding - promised a "return to normalcy" in the new era; ironic because the new era was hardly normal at all
Believed Government is business. taciturn, pro-business president (1923-1929) who took over after Harding's death, restored honesty to government, and accelerated the tax cutting and antiregulation policies of his predecessor; his laissez-faire policies brought short-term prosperity from 1923 to 1929.
Progressive. Reduced workdays to 8hrs. Increased top tax bracket and corporate taxes.
The "Bonus Marchers"
1932- unemployed veterans marched to DC demanding the payment of bonuses promised to them at a later date (1945) congress didn't pass the Bonus BIll they wanted. Hoover orders the US army to break up their encampment. Tanks and Tear gas was used to destroy the camps.
The Great Depression
The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
FDR gave banks national holidays to stimulate economy.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
4 terms in office (1933-1945). New deal. He built the New Deal Coalition that united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, and rural white Southerners. The Coalition realigned American politics after 1932, creating the Fifth Party System and defining American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century.
The New Deal
Welfare programs and governmental expansion in the economy.
The Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
The Lend-Lease Act
On 11th March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers.
(12/7/1941): The Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in this place in Hawaii. Several battleships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged or sunk. This attack resulted in an Amercian declaration of war the following day. Canada also declared war on Japan. Canadian soldiers in Hong Kong were soon fighting as the Japanese attacked the British colony the same day as this.
The plan to strike at Germany first despite the bombing from Japan
The Coral Sea and Midway*
Where was midway?
Allied victory that kept Japan out of Australia.
American victory that kept Japan from launching assaults on America easily. Japan could not recover from this
D-Day attack of Allied troops on the coast of German-occupied Normandy. Although it held heavy costs, the attack succeeded in providing a foothold for further Allied encroachment into continental Europe in France.
The "Zoot Suit Riot"*
why were they bad?
Racial riots in LA based around conflict between flamboyant young latinos and white soldiers, sailors, and civilians.
Carried out through Executive Order 9066, which took many Japanese families away from their homes and into internment camp. Motivated (somewhat) by racisim and fear of spies
Harry S. Truman
The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships. Demonstrated the Japanese mindset of never surrendering. Used to strike fear into Americans.
The Atomic bomb
Used by US in Nagasaki and Hiroshima; raised problems in Soviet-American relations; led to postwar nuclear arms race
named from Kennan's article; policy consolidated evolving postwar anticommunism; established guidelines to shape US role in world; aimed at halting Soviet aggression and sustained resistance of Russian power
The Marshall Plan
13.5 billion to rebuild devoted economies in western Europe. Russia withdrew and did not take part
The Berlin Blockade*
where were the allies located? was the berlin wall in the middle of berlin?
Soviet's response to containment; cut off all of Western Allies' rail and highway routes to Berlin
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
NATO formed due to Berlin airlift
The G.I. Bill of Rights
The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.
Mainly used for education.
where did this come about?
Term for making ruthless and unfair charges against opponents, such as those leveled by a red-hunting Wisconsin senator in the 1950s. Fear of communist spies
The Korean War
First "hot war" of the Cold war. The Korean War began in 1950 when the Soviet-backed North Koreans invaded South Korea before meeting a counter-offensive by UN Forces, dominated by the United States. The war ended in stalemate in 1953. started in 1950
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Nicknamed "Ike", was a General of the Army (five star general) in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961).As President, he oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System.
Loved by both parties
part of suburbanization and the status of women and teenagers
Suburbanization: rapid expansion of the suburbs stimulated growth in industries like automobiles, road and highway construction
cause for suburbanization: provided larger + more affordable homes than cities, could more easily form communities with ppl from similar backgrounds, good for family life, racist whites mostly separate from poorer blacks
Interstate Highway Act
Authorized the construction of 42,000 miles of interstate highways linking all the nation's major cities.
the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to becoming a judge, he was a lawyer who was best remembered for his activity in the Little Rock 9 and his high success rate in arguing before the Supreme Court and for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
refused to give up her bus seat to a white man in montgomery, AL; launched the bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, MLK jr led a boycott of city busses; after 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
a minister who was committed to nonviolent protest (inspired by Gandhi); leader of southern christian leadership conference and Montgomery bus boycott; gave I Have a Dream speech; shot in Memphis TN
1960: Group of black college students would go into a segregated restaurant and demanded to be served. Went along with MLK's non-violent protest
1961: Both blacks and whites would ride buses from North to the South knowing that bus laws enforced segregation in the South
John F. Kennedy
1960-1963: assassinated by Lee Oswald. Lydon Johnson took over as president. Called for Bay of Pigs attack in Cuba and failed miserably
Cuban Missile Crisis
Khrushchev orders 60 missiles to be brought into Cuba. American U2 planes observe launch pads and report back, immediately drawing concern.
Khrushchev and JFK come to the agreement that the missiles in Cuba will be removed as long as the US promises to forgo any further plans to invade Cuba or overthrow Castro as well as remove the missiles from Turkey.
The Viet Cong
Communist guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s-1975) and the United States (early 1960s-1973)
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
The Ho Chi Minh Trail
the only truly significant target available for attack on North Vietnam, which stretched into Laos and from Laos into the northern reaches of South Vietnam, the main thoroughfare for North Vietnam's shipment of troops and supplies to South Vietnam.
Went thru the neutral Cambodia
The Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Could not win b/c capital of Saigon was taken
Capital of Saigon was taken and American's realized they could never win this war
Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Did NOT sign civil rights act
The Iran Hostage Crisis
The 444 days in which American embassy workers were held captive by Iranian revolutionaries after young Muslim fundamentalists overthrew the oppressive regime of the American-backed shah, forcing him into exile. These revolutionaries triggered an energy crisis by cutting off Iranian oil. The crisis began when revolutionaries stormed the American embassy, demanding that the United States return the shah to Iran for trial. The episode was marked by botched diplomacy and failed rescue attempts by the Carter Administration. After permanently damaging relations between the two countries, the crisis ended with the hostage's release the day Ronald Reagan became president
Reagan won the election b/c of this!
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
the economic policies of Ronald Regan; also called supply-side economics. Regan hoped to promote growth and investment by deregulating business, reducing corporate tax rates, and lowering federal tax rates for upper and middle income Americans
Trickle down effect. Tax breaks on the upper class
The Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
George H. W. Bush
was the 42st president of the United States, previously being Ronald Reagan's vice-president. His policies and ideals derived heavily from his predecessor and were built on them. He was a well-to-do oil tycoon before devoting himself to the public. He served as a congressman, emissary to China, ambassador to the UN, director of the CIA, and vice president before becoming president.
The First Gulf War
a war fought between a coalition led by the United States and Iraq, free Kuwait from Iraqi invaders
Entered off in January 1993, as the first democratic president since Jimmy Carter and a self-proclaimed activist. He had a very domestic agenda. When in office he had a lot of controversial appointments. When a longtime friend, Vince Foster, committed suicide it sparked an escalating inquiry into some banking and real estate ventures involving the president and his wife in the early 1980s. This became known as the Whitewater affair.
affair with Monica Lewinsky
George W. Bush
Bush's justification for war? Weapons of Mass Destruction
Attacks of 9-11
after 9-11, USA declares war on Afghanistan
The War on Terror
Initiated by President George W. Bush after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the broadly defined "war on terror" aimed to weed out terrorist operatives and their supporters throughout the world
sheltered in the Mercedes Benz Superdome
digging up dirt on democrats