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from my biology book.


all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time.


an inherited characteristic that improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.


the name of the ship that Charles Darwin sailed on in the 1830's

Descent With Modification

the theory of Darwin that all of the species living on earth today descended from earlier species.

Natural Selection

the process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than do other individuals.


preserved remains of organisms that lived in the past

Fossil Record

the collection of fossils recorded in rock layers over time


species that no longer exist

Homologous Stucture

similar structures among related species

Vestigial Structure

homologous structures that have a major function in one species but not in a related species


A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time


differences among members of the same species

Artificial Selection

selective breeding of plants and animals to produce offspring with traits that humans value

Gene Pool

consists of all the alleles [different forms of genes] in all the individuals of a population


a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles withen a population

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium

populations that do not undergo change to their gene pools[not evolving]

Genetic Drift

change in a gene pool due to chance

Gene Flow

the exchange of genes with another population


the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contribution of other individuals

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