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19 terms

(Biology) Chapter 14 :Evolution [key terms]

from my biology book.
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Evolution
all of the changes that have transformed life over an immense time.
Adaption
an inherited characteristic that improves an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Beagle
the name of the ship that Charles Darwin sailed on in the 1830's
Descent With Modification
the theory of Darwin that all of the species living on earth today descended from earlier species.
Natural Selection
the process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than do other individuals.
Fossils
preserved remains of organisms that lived in the past
Fossil Record
the collection of fossils recorded in rock layers over time
Extinct
species that no longer exist
Homologous Stucture
similar structures among related species
Vestigial Structure
homologous structures that have a major function in one species but not in a related species
Population
A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area at the same time
Variation
differences among members of the same species
Artificial Selection
selective breeding of plants and animals to produce offspring with traits that humans value
Gene Pool
consists of all the alleles [different forms of genes] in all the individuals of a population
Microevolution
a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles withen a population
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
populations that do not undergo change to their gene pools[not evolving]
Genetic Drift
change in a gene pool due to chance
Gene Flow
the exchange of genes with another population
Fitness
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to the contribution of other individuals