Terms in this set (69)
Occurs when chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals.
Average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time; can be classified by temperature, humidity, precipitation, and vegetation
Mechanical weathering process that occurs when water freezes in the cracks of rocks and expands, causing the rock to break apart
Physical processes that break rock apart without changing its chemical makeup; can be caused by ice wedging, animals, and plant roots.
Chemical weathering process that occurs when some minerals are exposed to oxygen and water over time.
Mechanical or chemical surface processes that break rock into smaller and smaller pieces
Mechanical weathering is more rapid in warm, wet climates
Chemical weathering _
occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
Mechanical weathering _
breaks apart rocks by physical processes
Ice wedging is brought about by _
water freezing and thawing
Which of the following is NOT an example of chemical weathering
ice wedging in rock
What kind of physical weathering is common in mica and shale?
In areas where freezing and thawing occur frequently, rocks weather rapidly because of the ____ of freezing water.
what chemical weathering called oxidation causes
The rate of weathering depends upon the area's _
the rate of chemical weathering increases with this
The process by which softer, less weather resistant rocks wear away and leave harder, more weather resistant rocks behind.
What is carbonation associated with
Carbonation occurs when carbon dioxide interacts chemically with minerals. Other common terms associated with carbonation are sink holes, karst topography, stalactites and stalagmites
Does the rate of chemical weathering increase or stay the same when a rock becomes more mechanically weathered?
Based on the macroscopic views of the three substances, which is most permeable?
Suppose that 40 mL of water is poured simultaneously into each of the containers shown below. After 10 seconds, 5 mL remains atop the gravel sample, 20 mL of water remains atop the sand sample and 28 mL of water remains atop the silt sample. Water continues to seep into each of the substances. Which substance has the lowest permeability
A particular type of rock formation is known to have a porosity of 22%. How much fluid could be present in 50 L of this rock?
Suppose you have equal amounts of three substances labeled A, B, and C. Then you add 350 mL of water to each, and then wait so that each one has time to absorb all of the water that it can. 25 mL of surface water remains above substance A. 60 mL of surface water remains above substance B. No water remains above substance C. Which of the substances has the greatest porosity
A dry soil sample has a volume of 500 mL. After 400 mL of water are added to the soil, the soil becomes saturated with 150 mL of surface water left on top. What is the porosity of the soil?
Each layer in a soil profile -- horizon A (top layer of soil), horizon B (middle layer), and horizon C (bottom layer).
Dark-colored, decayed organic matter that supplies nutrients to plants and is found mainly in topsoil.
Removal of minerals that have been dissolved in water
Twigs, leaves, and other organic matter that help prevent erosion and hold water and may eventually be changed into humus by decomposing organisms
Mixture of weathered rock and mineral fragments, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, water, and air that can take thousands of years to develop.
Vertical section of soil layers, each of which is a horizon
What occurs in the A horizon?
Horizon A provides plants with nutrients they need for a great life.
What takes place in the B horizon
Horizon B usually will contain a fair amount of clay and iron oxides, but also may contain some elements from horizon A because of the process of leaching. Leaching resembles what happens in a coffee pot as the water drips through the coffee grounds. Leaching may also bring some minerals from horizon B down to horizon
Why is the topmost layer of soil called the O horizon?
Horizon O refers to the organic material on the upper most part of the profile (this layer is usually very thin).
Plants cannot grow without __
Humus is made of tiny pieces of weathered parent material.
The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon.
____ is a factor that affects soil development.
Type of rock
all of the above
Most plant roots grow in the ____
Which layer of soil often contains litter?
the A horizon
Below the C horizon is __
The ____ horizon has smaller rock and mineral particles than the other layers
Minerals found in the B horizon were dissolved in water and carried there by a process called
Most plants grow in the A horizon
Plants cannot grow without ___
The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the ____ horizon
What is the layer above the A horizon?
planting along the natural contours of the land
Soil erosion can be slowed by _
Eroded soil can enter ______, causing them to fill up with sediment
practice of forming step-like fields on a steep slope
At construction sites, workers often reduce erosion by ___
moving excess sediment back to its original location
spraying water on bare soil
all of the above
___ turns and loosens soil, improving it for crops, but leaving soil vulnerable to erosion.
___ is harmful because plants do not grow well when topsoil has been los
How is soil erosion affecting Lake Victoria in Africa?
Silt is choking the lake
Soil erosion can be reduced by
What term describes the management of soil to prevent its destruction
How long did it take for the thick, fertile soil of the North American prairies to develop?
thousands of years
The practice of plowing fields along the curves of a slope is called contour plowing.
The practice of plowing fields along the curves of a slope is called
A thick mass of tough roots called loess kept the fertile soil of the prairies in place and held on to moisture.
What can cause the loss of soil that is not protected by plant cove
erosion by water or wind
The value of soil is always constant.
In conservation plowing, why are dead weeds and stalks of the previous year's crop left in the ground?
to retain moisture and hold the soil in place
A combination of overplowing and drought caused the Dust Bowl
Contour plowing is also known as no-till plowing.
What term describes the management of soil to prevent its destruction?
Plowing removed the grass from the Great Plains and exposed the soil. What effect did this have when a drought struck the Great Plains during the 1930s?
It helped to cause the Dust Bowl
What can cause the loss of soil that is not protected by plant cover?
erosion by water or wind
Loss of fertility in the Serengeti soil has led to:
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