8th grade Vocab Exam

1. n. A thing that is required as a prior condition for something else to happen or exist; something that is required beforehand.

(ex sentence) Spanish I is the _____ for Spanish II.

2. adj. Required before something else can exist or happen.

(ex sentence) Art I is a _____ course for Art II.

Synonyms: 1. n. requirement, qualification
2. adj. necessary, obligatory

Antonyms: 1. No real antonym for noun form.
2. adj. unnecessary
1. n. A king or queen who is the supreme ruler of a country.

(ex sentence) The _____ ruled the kingdom with a heavy fist.

2. adj. Possessing supreme power. In terms of a country or government, fully independent.

(ex sentence) Prince Caspian is the _____ ruler of all of Narnia, as he shares the throne with no one.

Syn: 1. n. ruler, monarch
2. adj. independent, absolute, autonomous

Ant: 1. n. servant, colony
2. adj. dependent, occupied, colonized
adj. Intensely passionate; having or displaying a passionate intensity.

(ex sentence) Because she is a _____ believer in freedom of speech, she protested the censorship of the book.

Syn: impassioned, vehement, enthusiastic, passionate

Ant: indifferent, apathetic
n. A person sent as a diplomatic representative on a special mission.

(ex sentence) The government sent two _____ to the war-torn area to help negotiate a peace treaty.

Syn: delegate, ambassador, envoy, representative, diplomat

Ant: rebel, anarchist, traitor, spy (working against you)
1. v. Achieve a feeling, attitude, or reaction.

(ex sentence) He _____ all his courage and asked the person he liked to go to the dance with him.

2. v. To gather together.

(ex sentence) We _____ up as many volunteers as we could to help with the clean-up project.

Syn: 1. raise, summon up, build up
2. collect, gather, amass, convene, congregate

Ant: 1. lose, release
2. disperse, disband
n. The ancient past; an object, building, or work of art from the ancient past.

(ex sentence) The museum curator has studied the _____ of Ancient Egypt his entire career.

Syn: antique, relic, history

Ant: present, modernity, future
n. Sincere regret or remorse about something bad or wrong that one has done.

(ex sentence) She felt great _____ for having lied to her parents about her failing grades and truancy.

Syn: guilt, contrition, remorse, regret, shame

Ant: remorselessness, apathy, pride, satisfaction
n. The act of not showing proper respect to someone; impertinence.

(ex sentence) The movie-goers were disgusted by the _____ of the man who answered his cell phone and began talking loudly during the show.

Syn: insolence, rudeness, brazenness, disrespect

Ant: courtesy, decorum, respect
adj. Absolute; complete; complete and total.

(ex sentence) The jury was convinced of the criminal's _____ guilt when he spontaneously confessed to the crime while on the witness stand.

Syn: total, downright, unequivocal, utter

Ant: partial, fractional
n. The most successful point. In terms of a mountain, the peak, the highest point.

(ex sentence) Winning both the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in the same year was the _____ of the writer's career.

Syn: culmination, high point, summit, zenith, climax

Ant: low point, base, bottom
v. to make an unpleasant feeling less intense
Syn. relieve, ease, alleviate
Ant. aggravate

v. to satisfy an appetite or desire
Syn. gratify, appease
ant. intensify

(ex sentence) You _____ someone's grief or sadness; you _____ your hunger or thirst.
adj. reserved or uncommunicative; saying very little

syn. reticent, quiet, reserved
ant. talkative, boisterous, garrulous, loquacious
adj. not showing care for the consequences of an action; rash
syn. misguided, reckless
ant. sensible

It's not that you don't understand the consequences of your actions; it's that you don't really care and you're willing to take the risk.
adj. offering nothing that is stimulating or challenging
syn. insipid, uninspired, boring
ant. interesting, lively

_____ is not lifeless as in dead, but rather lifeless as in spiritless, as in not lively; _____ is basically unimaginative, dull, or tedious.
n. a temporary stay
syn. visit, vacation
ant. residence

v. to stay somewhere temporarily
syn. stop
ant. remain
n. exemption from a rule or usual requirement
syn. impunity, immunity, exception
ant. accountability, responsibility

n. the act of distributing or supplying something
syn. allocation, allotment
ant. retention, collection

(ex sentence) The pharmacist carefully monitors the _____ of the medications.
adj. not even or regular in pattern; unpredictable
syn. inconsistent
ant. consistent

Someone's behavior, speech, opinions, or movements might be _____, meaning there's no consistency or pattern.
adj. causing or likely to cause an argument; controversial
syn. disputable, heated, quarrelsome
ant. agreeable

You are _____ if you're always arguing or fighting with others. If you always have to be right, if you always argue, if you always have to prove someone else wrong, you are _____.
v. to reach an authoritative judgment or settlement
syn. adjudicate, mediate, conciliate
ant. agitate

Usually an objective third party is involved.

_____ is like mediate; someone steps in and tries to help solve the problem fairly for both sides.
n. an anomaly; something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected; a typically unwelcome change or departure from what is normal, usual, or expected
syn. anomaly, deviation, irregularity
ant. normality, regularity

n. a typically unwelcome change or departure from someone's usual moral character or mental ability
_____ are atypical; it's completely the opposite of or totally outside of what is normal. Whereas erratic suggests that something's not right but things can get back to normal, _____ means it's completely wrong, completely abnormal with little chance of ever being right.

(ex sentence) Frankenstein's monster was an _____ and an abomination.
adj. overcome with anger; extremely indignant

syn. enraged, furious, infuriated
ant. delighted, pleased
n. offense or annoyance
syn. annoyance, indignation, take offense, take exception, be insulted
ant. cheer, favor, pleasure

You take _____ to something you find offensive.
n. morally correct behavior or thinking
syn. righteousness, virtue, integrity
ant. indecency, immorality

_____ is the very highest level of morality or goodness; Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Jr., or Mother Teresa are examples.

(ex sentence) We admire and respect people who possess true _____.
n. military spy operation to observe or locate an enemy or to figure out strategic or important features
syn. survey, investigation, inspection

(ex sentence) The military runs _____ missions when it needs to gather information.
n. a long, angry speech of criticism or accusation

syn. diatribe, rant, denunciation, condemnation
ant. compliment
adj. lacking good manners, refinement, or grace

syn. uncivilized, uncultured
ant. refined, sophisticated

_____ is basically having bad manners.
v. to make something clear; to explain
syn. explain, illuminate, shed light on
ant. confuse

To _____ something means to explain something, to shed light on something
v. to put an end to something, typically by the use of force
syn. crush, curb, quash
ant. encourage, advance, cultivate, promote

v. to subdue or silence someone
syn. suppress
ant. allow)

v. to suppress something, typically an unpleasant feeling
syn. calm, soothe, pacify, assuage
ant. encourage, intensify

You _____ someone or something; you put a stop to it or you suppress it.
n. concise and to-the-point use of words in writing or speech
syn. conciseness, succinctness
ant. prolixity, verbosity, wordiness

_____ is the noun form of brief. We use _____ to describe communications, like writing and speech.
v. to steal
syn. thieve, rob, pilfer, loot
ant. give, offer
v. *To make someone feel annoyed or frustrated.
v. *To cause distress or to cause worry — to make someone feel distressed or worried.

Synonyms: irritate, provoke, infuriate, exasperate, torment, plague, haunt, worry, concern

Antonyms: delight, please soothe, comfort
(ex sentences)
-Our siblings tend to _____ us in that they tend to make us annoyed or frustrated.
-We tend to _____ our parents, teachers, and other adults in that we tend cause them distress or worry.
1. noun: A state of rest or tranquility
Synonym: rest, relaxation, serenity, composure
Antonym: unrest, agitation

2. verb: To lie down in rest; to rest.
Synonym: rest, relax, recline
Antonym: exert, energize
n. Contemptuous, disrespectful, or scornful ridicule or mockery.

If you treat someone with _____, it means you're treating them with ridicule and disrespect; you're mocking them in a mean way, not a fun way.

Synonym: ridicule, scorn, insult, disrespect, unkindness
Antonym: flattery, praise, kindness, appreciation
v. To disguise or conceal one's true motives, feelings, or beliefs.

When you _____ your feelings, emotions, or motives — you're hiding how you really feel or what you really think; you're hiding your real reason for doing something.

Synonym: feign, masquerade, bluff, posture, fake, hide
Antonym: acknowledge, reveal, disclose, show, express
1. strange or odd; unusual
Syn: bizarre, weird
Ant: ordinary

2. belonging exclusively to, particular to; referring to something distinctive to or characteristic of a particular place or people
Syn: characteristic of, typical of, indicative of, distinctive, special
Ant: ---
n. property; a personal possession; livestock

Syn: property, commodity
Ant: ---
n. the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region; colloquial (which means informal, conversational) language
Syn: dialect
Ant: formal language

Slave Narratives are in the _____. The stories of enslaved people were recorded in the _____; the stories were written down word for word in exactly the way the person spoke.
n. great energy or enthusiasm in pursuit of a cause or an objective

Syn: passion, fervor, devotion, fanaticism
Ant: apathy, indifference
n. a very steep rock face or cliff, typically a tall one

Syn: ledge, cliff, height
Ant: valley, gorge, ravine
v. withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization

Syn: withdraw, split, disaffiliate (which means end official connection) from
Ant: join, affiliate (which means officially attach or connect) with
v. undermine the power and authority of (an established system or institution)

Syn: destabilize, sabotage, damage
Ant: strengthen, fortify
v. reduce (something) in quality or value; degrade

Syn: degrade, devalue, demean, discredit, disgrace, dishonor
Ant: enhance, enrich
n. disagreement between people; lack of agreement or harmony between things

Syn: conflict, hostility, dissension, dispute
Ant: accord, harmony
n. 1. a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a church, political party, or other group
Syn: creed, belief, ideology, principle
Ant: disbelief, heterodoxy (which means not conforming with accepted standards or beliefs), skepticism

2. a stated principle of government policy, mainly in foreign or military affairs, for example the Monroe Doctrine

Related word = indoctrination/indoctrinate. (which means teaching a person or group to accept a set of beliefs uncritically, without question)
n. 1. the action of taking something for one's own use, typically without the owner's permission
Syn: confiscation, sequestration, seizure, requisition
Ant: bestowal (which means something given as an honor, right, or gift)

2. a sum of money or total of assets devoted to a special purpose
Syn: allocation, allotment, allowance
Ant: ---
n. 1. courtesy and considerate behavior toward others
Syn: civility, respectfulness, courteousness
Ant: rudeness, disrespectfulness

2. an association of nations for their mutual benefit or the mutual recognition by nations of the laws and customs of others
Syn: alliance, coalition, union, confederation
Ant: ---
v. make or declare (something) sacred; dedicate formally to a religious or divine purpose

Syn: sanctify, bless, reserve, anoint, ordain
Ant: condemn, desecrate, denounce
adj. honored as holy; greatly revered or respected

Syn: sacred, consecrated, blessed, honored, sacrosanct
Ant: unholy, abhorrent (which means disgusting and loathsome; repugnant), detested
adj. cloudy, opaque, or thick with suspended matter

Syn: murky, cloudy
Ant: clear
1. enough or more than enough; plentiful
2. large and accommodating

Syn: sufficient, abundant
Ant: insufficient, meager
lasting or existing for a long or apparently infinite time; enduring or continually recurring

Syn: abiding, persisting, unfailing, everlasting, perpetual, eternal
Ant: fleeting, short-lived, ephemeral
refusing to be persuaded or to change one's mind

Syn: unwavering, uncompromising, resolute, resolved, unrelenting
Ant: flexible, variable
1. covered thinly with gold leaf or gold paint
2. wealthy and privileged
3. given a specious or false brilliance to

synonym: gold-plated, embellished, exaggerated, disguised, dressed up
antonym: stripped, bare
n. and adj.
1. adj. only -- happening or developing gradually or in stages; proceeding step by step
2. n. and adj. -- favoring or implementing social reform or new, liberal ideas; favoring or promoting change or innovation
1. take in information, ideas, or culture and understand fully, make them one's own
2. absorb and integrate people, ideas, or culture into a wider society or culture

synonym: integration
antonym: rejection, alienation
1. happy or joyous
2. showing a casual and cheerful indifference considered to be callous or improper

synonym: cheerful, merry, indifferent, uncaring, thoughtless
antonym: sad, thoughtful
adj. bold and without shame

synonym: bold, cheeky, insolent
antonym: timid
adj. persistent, sometimes to the point of annoyance

synonym: tenacious, unrelenting
antonym: weak, irresolute
1. policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants
2. a return to or emphasis on traditional or local customs, in opposition to outside influences
n. elaborate display or ceremony

synonym: spectacle, splendor, pomp
antonym: simplicity, austerity
1. support given by a patron (a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity)
2. power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges
1. political party seeking to represent the interests of ordinary people
2. belief in and concern for the views of ordinary people
remarkably or impressively great in extent, size, or degree

synonym: immense, tremendous, exceptional
antonym: small, unexceptional
1. action of subduing someone or something by force
2. the restraint, prevention, or inhibition of a feeling, quality, etc.

synonym: suppression, subjugation
antonym: allowance, concession
1. strong and healthy; vigorous; sturdy; able to withstand or overcome adverse conditions
2. uncompromising and forceful

synonym: powerful, durable, resilient
antonym: frail, vulnerable, weak
1. superficially plausible, but actually wrong
2. misleading in appearance; especially misleadingly attractive

synonym: misleading, deceptive
antonym: unambiguous, genuine
behaving or looking as though one thinks one is superior to others

synonym: arrogant, haughty, pompous, conceited
antonym: humble, modest, unpretentious
an award or privilege granted as a special honor or as an acknowledgement of merit; an expression of praise or admiration

(can also refer specifically to knighting - a touch on a person's shoulders with a sword at the bestowing of knighthood)

synonym: honor, award, tribute, commendation, praise, kudos
antonym: contempt, shame, dishonor, condemnation
enthusiastic or passionate

synonym: fervent, zealous, vehement
antonym: apathetic, indifferent
adj. and n.
familiar with and at ease in many different countries and cultures; having an exciting or glamorous character associated with travel and a mixture of cultures

synonym: worldly, international, cultivated, cultured, sophisticated
antonym: homespun, rustic, unsophisticated, unrefined
arrogantly superior and disdainful

synonym: supercilious, conceited, snobbish
antonym: humble
a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force
thin, supple, and graceful

(often used to describe a person's body or movements -- a ballet dancer)

synonym: agile, nimble, deft, limber
antonym: clumsy, rigid
of or about war; warlike

synonym: militaristic, combative, bellicose, pugnacious, belligerent, aggressive
antonym: peaceful, pacifistic, civil
the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests
-act of preparing and organizing troops for active service (warfront)
-act of organizing and encouraging people to act in a particular way in order to bring about a particular objective; act of bringing resources into use in order to achieve a particular goal (homefront)

synonym: deployment, incitement
antonym: inaction
patriotic feelings, principles, or efforts

synonym: patriotism, jingoism (jingoism = extreme patriotism, especially in the form of aggressive or warlike foreign policy)
antonym: ---
near (adj. and adv.) or almost (adv.)
a low protective wall along the edge of a roof, bridge, or balcony
a protective wall or earth defense along the top of a trench or other place for the concealment of troops

synonym: balustrade, barricade, rampart, bulwark, embankment, bastion
antonym: opening
v. and n.
verb: shake or tremble in speaking, typically through nervousness or emotion
noun: a shake or tremble in a person's voice

synonym: tremble, waver, quiver
antonym: steady/steadiness, firmness
grimly mocking or cynical

synonym: satirical, sarcastic, derisive, caustic
antonym: sincere, kind
conduct or speech inciting people to rebel against the authority of a state or sovereign

synonym: subversion, provocation, insurrection, mutiny, insurgence
antonym: submission, obedience